Sarah L. Stafford

Sarah L. Stafford

Director of the Thomas Jefferson Program in Public Policy and Professor of Economics, Public Policy and Law
Degrees: Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University; M.A., The Johns Hopkins University; B.S., Georgetown University
Email: [[slstaf]]
Office phone: (757) 221-1317
Office location: Room 140B
Personal web page: here
Areas of Specialization

Economic Analysis of Law; Environmental Law; Law and Public Policy; Regulatory Reform

Teaching Interests

Economic Analysis of Law; Environmental Policy; Microeconomics for Policy Analysis; Regulation of Markets

Representative Professional Activities and Achievements

Sarah Stafford received her B.S. in Foreign Service from Georgetown University in 1990 and her Ph.D. in Economics from the Johns Hopkins University in 1998, the same year in which she joined the William and Mary faculty. Her teaching interests include law and economics, regulation, environmental economics and industrial organization. Professor Stafford's research focuses on the effect of environmental regulations on firm and industry behavior.

Scholarly Publications
Articles and Book Chapters
  • Property owner shoreline modification decisions vary based on their perceptions of shoreline change and interests in ecological benefits, 10 Frontiers in Marine Science (2023) (with Amanda G. Guthrie et al.). Online.
  • Using Regulatory Inspection Data to Measure Environmental Compliance, in Measuring Compliance: Assessing Corporate Crime and Misconduct Prevention (Cambridge University Press 2022).
  • Emphasizing Distributional Impacts in Discussing Solutions to Market Failures, 15 International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics (2021).
  • Regulating Hazardous Wastes under U.S. Environmental Federalism: The Role of State Resources, 108 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2021).
  • Encouraging Living Shorelines Over Shoreline Armoring: Insights from Property Owners Choices in the Chesapeake Bay, 48 Coastal Management (2020).
  • What Drives Property Owners to Modify their Shorelines? A Case Study of Gloucester County, Virginia, 40 Wetlands (2020).
  • Developing a Framework to Identify Local Business and Government Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: A Case Study of Coastal Virginia, 47 Coastal Management (2019).
  • Measuring the Potential for Toxic Exposure from Storm Surge and Sea-Level Rise, 20 Natural Hazards Review (2019).
  • The Clean Air Act Watch List and Federal Oversight of State Enforcement Efforts, 93 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2019).
  • Were the 1982 Merger Guidelines Old News?, 13 J. Competition L. & Econ. 577 (2017) (with Alan J. Meese). Online.
  • Voluntary Self-Policing and the U.S. Audit Policy, in Compliance and Enforcement of Environmental Law (with David Markell, LeRoy Paddock, and Edward Elgar, 2017).
  • Environmental Management Systems and Compliance at Small and Lightly Regulated Facilities: Evidence from the New Hampshire Hazardous Waste Program, 49 J. Regul. Econ. 292 (2016).
  • Standardization and the Impacts of Voluntary Program Participation: Evidence from Environmental Auditing, 43 Int'l Rev. L. & Econ. (2015) (with Lirong Liu). Online.
  • Will Additional Federal Enforcement Improve the Performance of Pipelines in the U.S.?, 37 Int'l Rev. L. & Econ. 137 (2014) (peer-reviewed).
  • How Predictable Are Environmental Compliance Inspections, 44 J. Regul. Econ. 361 (2013) (peer-reviewed).
  • Do 'Carrots' Work? Examining the Effectiveness of EPA's Compliance Assistance Program, 31 J. Pol'y Analysis & Mgmt. 533 (2012) (peer-reviewed).
  • Private Policing of Environmental Performance: Does it Further Public Goals?, 39 BC Envtl. Aff L. Rev. 73 (2012).
  • A Facility-level Analysis of the Long-term Consequences of Environmental Auditing among Hazardous Waste Generators, 40 J. Regul. Econ. 279 (2011) (with Mary Evans & Lirong Liu) (peer-reviewed).
  • How Green is Your Campus? An Analysis of the Factors that Drive Universities to Embrace Sustainability, 29 Contemp. Econ. Pol'y 337 (2011) (peer-reviewed).
  • Management of Hazardous Waste and Contaminated Land, 3 Annual Review of Resource Economics 255 (2011) (with Hilary Sigman) (peer-reviewed).
  • Outsourcing Enforcement: Principles to Guide Self-Policing Regimes, 32 Cardozo L. Rev. 2293 (2011).
  • Where Things Stand with Hazardous Waste Regulation, in Issues of the Day: 100 Commentaries on Climate, Energy, the Environment, Transportation, and Public Health Policy 76 (2010) (with Ian W. H. Parry and Felicia Day eds., Resources for the Future 2010).
  • Individual Decision Making Experiments with Risk and Intertemporal Choice, 38 J. Risk & Uncertain. 51 (2009) (with Lisa R. Anderson) (peer-reviewed).
  • Self-Policing in a Targeted Enforcement Regime, 74 S. Econ. J. 934 (2008) (peer-reviewed).
  • Can Consumers Enforce Environmental Regulations? The Role of the Market in Hazardous Waste Compliance, 31 J. Reg. Econ. 83 (2007) (peer-reviewed).
  • Should You Turn Yourself In? The Consequences of Environmental Self-Policing, 26 J. Pol'y Analysis & Mgmt. 305 (2007) (peer-reviewed).
  • Rational or Confused Polluters? Evidence from Hazardous Waste Compliance, 5 B.E. J. Econ. Analysis & Pol'y 21 (2006), reprinted in The Economics of Hazardous Waste and Contaminated Land (Hilary Sigman ed., Edward Elgar Publishing 2008) (peer-reviewed).
  • State Adoption of Environmental Audit Initiatives, 24 Contemp. Econ. Pol'y 172 (2006) (peer-reviewed).
  • Does Self-Policing Help the Environment? EPA's Audit Policy and Hazardous Waste Compliance, 6 Vt. J. Envtl. L. 1 (2005).
  • The Campus Parking Game: A Demonstration of Price Discrimination and Consumer Welfare, 71 S. Econ. J. 668 (2005) (with Jeffrey Michaels et al.) (peer-reviewed).
  • Progress Toward Title IX Compliance: The Effect of Formal and Informal Enforcement Mechanisms, 85 Soc. Sci.Q. 1469 (2004) (Special Issue Social Science Examines Education) (peer-reviewed).
  • An Experimental Analysis of Rent Seeking Under Varying Competitive Conditions, 115 Pub. Choice 199 (2003) (with Lisa R. Anderson) (peer-reviewed).
  • Assessing the Effectiveness of State Regulation and Enforcement of Hazardous Waste, 23 J. Reg. Econ. 27 (2003) (peer-reviewed).
  • Network Externalities and Standardization: A Classroom Demonstration, 69 Southern Economic Journal 1000 (2003) (with Christopher S. Ruebeck et al.) (peer-reviewed).
  • Punishment in a Regulatory Setting: Experimental Evidence from the VCM, 24 J. Reg. Econ. 91 (2003) (with Lisa R. Anderson) (peer-reviewed).
  • The Effect of Punishment on Firm Compliance with Hazardous Waste Regulations, 44 J. Envtl. Econ. & Mgmt. 290 (2002) (peer-reviewed).
  • The Impact of Environmental Regulations on the Location of Firms in the Hazardous Waste Management Industry, 76 Land Econ. 569 (2000) (peer-reviewed).
  • Greater Williamsburg Virginia Area Housing Affordability Analysis, City of Williamsburg Housing Affordability Task Force (2021).
  • Housing Needs Assessment for York County, Williamsburg Association of Realtors and York County (2020).
  • 2018 Shoreline Property Owner Survey: A Synopsis of Preliminary Results, (2019).
  • James City County Housing Needs Assessment, Williamsburg Association of Realtors and James City County (2019).
  • City of Williamsburg Housing Needs Assessment, Williamsburg Association of Realtors and James City County (2018).
  • James City County Housing Needs Assessment, Williamsburg Association of Realtors and James City County (2015).
  • Hazardous Substances, in Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource and Environmental Economics (Jason Shogren ed., Elsevier Academic Press 2013).

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