William & Mary

Elective Courses by Title

Accounting for Lawyers Law 422

This course provides an introduction to basic financial accounting, auditing, and finance for students who have not previously taken an accounting course. The course will be limited to such students unless they receive permission from the professor. Accounting topics will include basic accounting procedures and principles, and the analysis of basic financial statements including the balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows. Auditing will focus on the role of the auditor and the meaning of audit reports. Finance topics will include "time value of money" issues and business valuation topics. All topics will emphasize implications for the legal profession. This course has been revised and has been increased to three (3) credits in order to provide necessary business background and greater depth in each topic area.

Administrative Law Law 453

Administrative law establishes the legal controls over the operation of government and hence it relates to almost every legal practice, from security regulation to social programs to criminal justice. Indeed, administrative law is essential to justice in a modern society because administrative agencies generate most of the law that actually affects our lives and because administrative agencies adjudicate far more disputes than the traditional judiciary. This course is an introductory examination of the rules and procedures governing agency decision making. It explores (1) how agencies make policy and (2) how businesses, interest groups, and citizens challenge agency policymaking in court.

Admiralty Law Law 441

A comprehensive survey of contemporary maritime law. Topics to be addressed include admiralty jurisdiction and procedure, the creation and enforcement of maritime liens, limitation of liability, maritime contracts, ship mortgage law, marine insurance contracts and principles, bills of lading, general average, and other maritime cargo issues, pilotage, towing, salvage, the law of seaman's injury and death, mariner's licensure, dealing with the modern piracy challenge, and an introduction to maritime environmental law. The course will have a practical focus, emphasizing legal concepts and practice tips of particular use to counsel representing ship owners, operators, seamen, marine insurance carriers, cargo interests, and others on a day-to-day basis.

Adolescents & Law Seminar Law 682

Adolescence differs from both childhood and adulthood in many legally significant respects. The law accounts for this difference in numerous contexts but fails to do so (or to do so appropriately) in many others. Students in this mini-course will explore the U.S. legal treatment of adolescents. We begin the course with a study of adolescence as a distinct developmental stage. This study is informed by research across disciplines within developmental science (behavioral psychology, cognitive neuroscience, etc.). We then analyze select legal doctrines as they apply to adolescents. Among these doctrines will be: adolescent reproductive rights and medical decision making; student rights within secondary and postsecondary institutions; juvenile justice; and adolescent political participation and military service. We will also consider parents' rights over and obligations to, their adolescent children. Final grades are based on class participation (25%) and a 10-page final paper (75%).

Adoption Law Seminar2 Law 597

The course will provide some preparation for counseling and representing persons who are unable to have children by normal reproduction or who prefer to become parents through adoption. We will study statutory bases for terminating the status of birth parents and for selection and approval of adoptive parents. We will learn the legal consequences of adoption, obstacles to adoption that arise from state and national boundaries, and what occurs when an adoption is disrupted after the child has lived with the adoptive parents for some time. We will also devote some attention to the law governing the alternative to adoption that is presented by assisted reproduction.

Advanced Applied International Research Law 691

After receiving training in International and Comparative Legal and Policy Research, students will be divided into small teams and assigned to work directly with international projects working in developing and post-conflict environments. As requested by project managers, research teams will conduct comparative legal and policy research used to support development and peacebuilding strategies. Participating projects include locations in Cambodia, Geneva, China, Uganda, South Africa, and the Hague. Students will be individually assigned to one of the participating organizations and will receive research assignments directly from field supervisors. Over the course of the semester each student will generate 25 to 35 pages of research to be reviewed, graded and turned in to field supervisors. Students interested in participating must apply directly to Professor Christie Warren. This seminar does not meet the writing requirement.

Advanced Brief Writing Law 730

This course is designed to enhance the student's brief writing skills in preparation for writing Moot Court tournament briefs. Moot Court team members are required to enroll during their fall, second-year semester. Students who take Advanced Brief Writing cannot take the Appellate track in Advanced Practice. This course is available only to Moot Court members.

Advanced Election Law Seminar Law 656

This two-credit course will examine advanced topics in election law taught by a leading practitioner in the field. This course will teach students how election attorneys approach litigating and representing clients in day-to-day election law practice. Students in this course will be required to read a series of full, un-edited cases for each of the topics covered. Specific subjects will include state versus federal powers in elections; individual rights versus state rights in elections; equal protection/due process claims since Bush v. Gore; photo ID controversies; regulation of money in elections; and disclosure/privacy in elections. Students will be expected to have taken Law 398 Election Law as a prerequisite for the Advanced Election Law course. However, students with election law experience may be allowed to register with instructor approval. Grades will be determined on the basis of class participation (10%) and a 20-25 page final paper (90%).

Advanced Legal Practice - Pretrial Criminal Practice Law 114C

The Pretrial Criminal course is designed to introduce students to persuasive pretrial advocacy in the criminal law context. Unlike what you might see on television, criminal cases are not usually won in 22 minutes in the courtroom. Rather, the bulk of criminal litigation is handled pretrial through pleadings, discovery, witness interviews, and pretrial motions. Students will follow a single criminal case from the commission of a crime to the start of trial, focusing on behind-the-scenes issues that criminal lawyers are forced to address every day. Students will receive reports of a crime, interview the defendant and/or the victims, investigate the evidence, and determine which charges to bring. Students will then engage in various pretrial activities typically found in criminal practice, such as moving for discovery, preparing exhibits for trial, and negotiating plea deals. Students will write two substantial motions to suppress. The class will culminate with a final oral argument based upon a written motion to suppress.

Advanced Legal Practice - Transactional Practice Law 114D

The Transactional Practice course is designed to introduce students to several elements of transactional practice in a deal-based context. Students will join a "deal team" shortly after the firm becomes involved. Students will learn transactional practice skills through a variety of practical assignments, such as due diligence, financial analysis, and the drafting of an operating agreement and a security agreement.

Advanced Legal Practice - Appellate Advocacy Law 114A

The Appellate Advocacy course will provide in-depth instruction and practical training in appellate advocacy, emphasizing both written and oral skills. Students will learn how to prepare for an appeal, file an appeal, write effective appellate briefs, and make effective appellate oral arguments. The skills involved include the ability to analyze, write, make strategic decisions, and speak effectively. Students will draft several practice writing assignments and one longer (20+ page) final written brief. At the end of the semester, students will present oral arguments based on their written brief. NOTE: Students who take Law 730 Advanced Brief Writing may NOT take this course.

Advanced Legal Practice - Pretrial Civil Practice Law 114B

The Pretrial Civil course is designed to introduce students to persuasive pretrial advocacy in a civil context. The course will prepare students for practice in civil litigation by introducing them to writing and practical skills necessary to represent a client in a civil case. Students will follow a single civil case from pre-litigation negotiations through the complaint and answer, discovery, and pre-trial motions. Students will learn civil litigation skills through a variety of practical assignments, such as drafting pleadings, conducting discovery, and engaging in alternative dispute resolution. Students will also write a demand letter and one or more substantive motions and briefs in support of motion(s). At the end of the semester, students will present oral arguments based on a substantive motion.

Advanced Practice Large Section Law 114L

This course is a corequisite with Law 114B Advanced Practice: Civil and Law 114C Advanced Practice: Criminal. Students will attend a once weekly class for the first six weeks of the semester that will focus on persuasive writing skills. This class emphasizes clear and effective reader-focused writing that is tailored to a particular audience. Students will build on objective writing techniques and learn to adapt their writing to a persuasive context. Students will learn techniques for writing persuasive legal arguments, persuasive fact statements, and persuasive rules and rule explanations. This class will complement the curriculum and instruction in the Pretrial Civil and Criminal classes.

Advanced Trial Techniques Law 736

This is an advanced trial advocacy course designed to hone learned skills of trying cases, especially the skills involved in opening statements, closing arguments and direct and cross examination. Although not exclusively designed for Trial Team members, the class will focus on preparation for the Trial Team competitions scheduled during the semester. If there is additional time remaining after the conclusion of the Trial Team competitive season, additional topics may be addressed. Class participation is required. This is a pass/fail course. Prerequisites: Evidence and Trial Advocacy

Advocacy Regulation Law 375

This course will introduce students to the multi-tiered and often contradictory ethics rules governing those who lobby government officials at the federal, state and local levels. The course aims to expose students to the various lobbyist registration, licensing, and reporting requirements (including HLOGA, FARA, and selected state and local requirements) in order to give students a broad survey of the differing regimes applicable to the industry. A primary focus will be on the types of conduct prohibited for lobbyists (and the government officials with whom they deal) and the policy choices and implications feeding, and stemming from, those ethics regulations. Students should emerge from this course with an understanding of the rules governing lobbyists at all levels of government, as well as a comprehension of the challenges inherent in the American system of government in creating and enforcing a uniform set of standards. Students will be asked to examine not only the legal requirements but also real-life scenarios faced by lobbyists and ethics regulators, and to consider the policy implications behind the decisions those actors make. Grading: 10-12 pp paper.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Survey2 Law 351

Knowledge about the various alternative processes of dispute resolution, as well as the law of ADR is quickly becoming indispensable to the civil legal practice of law. This survey course will introduce students to the important legal principles and issues posed by the growing use of ADR within the legal system. Further, the course will focus on the different types of alternative processes available to lawyers, with the goal of recognizing that conflict can present opportunities for significant change and growth, that will enable lawyers to more adequately represent the interests of their clients.

American Jury Seminar Law 542

This seminar provides a broad overview of contemporary jury system management and trial procedure with an emphasis on current policy debates concerning the American jury. The course begins with a brief review of the history of the jury and current public perceptions of its role in contemporary society. It then examines the jury selection process from summoning and qualification procedures through voir dire. After a brief examination of jury behavior and decision-making based on contemporary social science, the course focuses on contemporary issues concerning the American jury in civil and criminal litigation. Specific topics include juror comprehension of expert testimony, civil jury verdicts and awards including punitive awards, racial and ethnic bias in criminal verdicts, and the effects of death qualification procedures in capital juries. Grades are based on a combination of homework assignments, short essays, a group project and class participation.

Animal Law Seminar Law 587

This seminar offers a practical survey of legislative and regulatory effects and litigation on behalf of animals under U.S. and International law. The course will address the historical status of animals in the law; the current application of animal protection laws for companion animals, wildlife, and farm and other domesticated animals; legislative efforts and citizen initiatives to strengthen animal protection laws; and the limitations on implementation and enforcement of laws addressing anti-cruelty, wildlife, marine mammal and other areas of animal protection and the impacts of free speech, religious expression, and other Constitutional provisions on animal protection statutes will be explored.

Anticanon Supreme Court Decisions Law 374

Rulings that Damage the Court and the Country Jamal Greene, in a 130-page article entitled "The Anticanon," 125 Harv. L. Rev. 279 (2011), distinguished between the "canon" and the "anticanon." The first covers Supreme Court cases generally featured and analyzed in major casebooks. The latter applies to cases so wrongly decided that the legal community treats them as lacking in precedential value. There is broad agreement on four anticanons: Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Lochner v. New York (1905), and Korematsu v. United States (1944). This one-credit course will look at a broader universe of two dozen cases that did damage to the Court and the country. We will examine the claims of judicial supremacy and judicial finality. The Court often cites Marbury v. Madison to support both claims, but a close look at the case demonstrates that Chief Justice John Marshall had something more modest in mind. At times the Court recognizes the deficiency of an earlier decision and will overrule it. On other occasions, as with Korematsu, a decision is not overruled but is widely condemned for its reasoning and consequences. Broad and sustained public opposition prompted the Court to reverse its rulings in many areas, including child labor regulations, the 1940 flag-salute case, and school busing. As with other branches of government, the Court has had its highs and lows, contributing to individual rights and freedoms in some cases while undermining them in others. In examining these cases, we will see certain patterns: the Court reverses itself because its composition changes, a Justice switches his vote and we don't who, inventing such doctrines as "liberty of contract," acting on false information in a contrived case, misrepresenting historical precedents, deferring to executive branch racist policy, deciding a case without looking at a disputed document in camera, and announcing rulings too broad to withstand scholarly and public scrutiny.

Antitrust Law 411

A study of restraints of trade, mergers and monopolies. The central concern of the course is to analyze what laws are necessary to protect a system in which goods are allocated by competitive markets.

Appellate & Supreme Court Clinic I Law 788

This clinic will introduce eight students to appellate practice in the federal Courts of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court. Students will work as a team to identify cases suitable for the clinic and then work as pairs to prepare appellate briefs in cases involving the First and Fourth Amendments. In Clinic matters, students will prepare briefs on the merits, amicus briefs, petitions for rehearing or certiorari, appendices, and other appellate filings. For cases in the federal courts of appeals, students will present oral argument when the court allows. Classes will meet every week for general instruction on appellate practice and to discuss draft briefs, petitions, and issues that have arisen in the Clinic's cases. Students will be graded based on the quality of their written product, and when appropriate, oral argument, as well as their level of effort and participation in preparing ancillary appellate materials such as appendices and filing documents. Students will interview for admission into the Clinic with Richmond attorney, Tillman Breckenridge, and there will be a preference for students who have taken Federal Courts or the Appellate Advocacy Track of the Legal Practice Program, though neither is a prerequisite. Graded course. Appellate and Supreme Court Clinic II will be offered in the spring semester for those who choose to enroll and have successfully complete Appellate and Supreme Court Clinic I. Graded course. IMPORTANT!! Participation in this clinic is by application and selection by the professor. To apply, send your resume, transcript and writing sample electronically to Professor Breckenridge at TBreckenridge@reedsmith.com. Applications will be accepted in early March each year (be on the lookout for the application due date in the Docket Digest), and interviews by Skype or in person will be held in late March. Please note that preference will be given to those students who intend to take Appellate & Supreme Court Clinic II, to be offered in the spring as a three credit graded course, following successful completion of Appellate Clinic I. Clinic is limited to 3Ls and has an enrollment cap of 8 students. To receive credit for this course, each student MUST attend the first meeting.

Appellate & Supreme Court Clinic II Law 789

Appellate Clinic II will continue the work of Appellate Clinic I, introducing eight students to a more in-depth look at appellate practice in the federal Courts of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court. Students will continue to work as a team to identify cases suitable for the clinic and work as pairs to prepare appellate briefs in cases involving the First and Fourth Amendments. Students will be graded based on the quality of their written product, and when appropriate, oral argument, as well as their level of effort and participation in preparing ancillary appellate materials such as appendices and filing documents. Successful completion of Appellate Clinic I is a prerequisite. Graded course.

Applied Evidence in a Technological Age Law 308

This four-credit course combines all of the elements of a traditional evidence course along with basic oral and trial advocacy and courtroom technology. The course will concentrate on the Federal Rules of Evidence from a pragmatic perspective. It will also address the evidentiary implications of modern electronic evidence. In addition to the study of fundamental evidentiary concepts, students will try a simple bench trial with traditional and electronic evidence using the McGlothin Courtroom's state-of-the art courtroom technology. This course is supported by the Center of Legal and Court Technology which will train students in the use of the McGlothin Courtroom's evidence presentation technology and provide clerk of court administrative support. Students who take Applied Evidence in a Technological Age may not take Law 309 Evidence. This course satisfies the Third Year Practice requirement.

Banking Law Law 327

The course covers the regulation of banks and other financial-services institutions. Specific topics include the definition of banking, the regulation of bank activities and capital structure, and the resolution of failed banks. The course also covers the financial crisis of 2007-2009, the resulting Dodd-Frank legislation, and international efforts to prevent future crises (such as Basel III accords).

Bankruptcy Survey Law 306

This course will introduce students to the federal law of bankruptcy, which allows debtors to restructure and discharge their obligations to creditors. Although both consumer bankruptcy and corporate reorganization will be touched on, the course will focus on business bankruptcies under Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code. We will not cover the adjustment of personal debts under Chapter 13. There are no prerequisites for the course.

Basic Trial Practice in a Technological Age Law 795

Students must have taken or be taking Evidence. Initial enrollment cap of 10 students. This is a slightly compressed pass/fail skills course that will begin in the second week of the semester. Each class ordinarily will take 60 or 90 minutes. To be taught in the McGlothlin Courtroom, the course will address direct and cross-examination, presentation of evidence, evidentiary objections and replies, opening statements and closing arguments, with and without courtroom technology but emphasizing the hands-on use of the McGlothlin Courtroom’s technology. Customarily, a topic will be introduced and taught in a 60 minute class with a hands-on 90 minute practical exercise practicum the following week. The course requires successful completion of a contested bench trial, and the course pass/fail grade will be based on that trial. This course is supported by the Center for Legal and Court Technology. Prereq or coreq: Law 309 Evidence. Students cannot have taken or subsequently take Law 308 Applied Evidence.

Business & Financial Literacy Law 335

The overall goal of this course is to provide a basic understanding of business terminology, methods and processes. The objectives of this course are to provide 1) a basic comprehension of common business vocabulary; 2) a basic understanding of the primary business entity forms; 3) a basic ability to read and interpret the primary and financial statements--the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement; and 4) a basic understanding of rudimentary finance and economic concepts. The final grade for the course will be based on a three-hour final exam, class participation, and two or three short (one-or two-page) assignments during the semester. STUDENTS HAVING ANY KIND OF UNDERGRADUATE OR GRADUATE BUSINESS DEGREE WILL BE RESTRICTED FROM TAKING THIS COURSE WITHOUT PROFESSORIAL APPROVAL.

Business Associations Law 320

An introductory examination of the law applicable to contemporary forms of business enterprise: the general partnership, the limited partnership, the limited liability partnership (LLP), the limited liability company (LLC), and the corporation. The course begins with an introduction to the principles of agency, which govern all these forms of enterprise. The course then explores the process of organization, formation and capitalization, limits on investors personal liability, and the role of fiduciary duties in different business contexts. We will then examine how these duties are enforced under state (and some federal) law. This course is a general introduction to the field. Students who take Business Associations may not take Corporations or Small Business Entities.

Business Law Field Projects I Law 786

This two credit graded interdisciplinary course will allow up to five selected third-year law students the opportunity to participate in teams with second-year MBA students from the Mason School of Business identifying, researching and proposing solutions for real business problems faced by major companies across the mid-Atlantic region. Each project focuses on different business issues depending on the needs of the corporate clients seeking assistance, and the student teams operate under Faculty Supervisors at the Mason School and the Law School, as well as Executive Partners from the Mason School. Note that students who enroll in BLFP I MUST also enroll in BLFP II in the spring; this is a full academic year commitment. A description of the Field Consultancy Program is below: Law students will join Mason School MBAs in challenging assignments in areas such as corporate and operational finance, marketing, strategy, management and organization, logistics and transportation, human resources and information technology. Students with an entrepreneurial interest may choose to work on business start-up field consultancy projects, under the auspices of the Entrepreneurship Center. Each project team works under the guidance of a Faculty Supervisor and Mason School Executive Partners to address management issues, develop a deeper understanding of the interdependence of functional areas, and polish teamwork and communication skills. Clients benefit from a fresh, innovative perspective on a business problem and have the opportunity to observe William & Mary student skills in action. In many cases, the Mason School develops long-term working relationships with Field Consultancy clients that result in post-graduate professional opportunities for participating students. Interested 3L students (up to 5 will be selected by course faculty) will need to apply for a position in the BLFP I and be selected after an interview by faculty. To apply for participation in BLFP I, students will need to submit a one page statement that acknowledges the one year commitment; describes why the student wants to participate in the course; explains what the student will contribute to the course and why the student's participation in the course will benefit fellow team members and clients; and what the student hopes to take away from the experience. A resume should also be submitted.

Business Law Field Projects II Law 787

BLFP II is a required continuation of the work of BLFP I in supporting corporate clients and their required projects as part of the Mason School of Business' Field Consultancy Program. Students will continue to be graded based on the objective criteria of BLFP I. Successful completion of BLFP I is a prerequisite. Graded course, two credits.

Business and Legal Problems Law 324

The Mason School of Business and the Marshall- Wythe School of Law will offer this course jointly. It is designed to familiarize 1) MBA students with the bodies of law and legal issues faced in a start-up, or smaller business enterprise and in the financing of an enterprise; and 2) to familiarize law students with the kinds of legal and business issues business executives face. Both business and law students will gain a hands-on understanding of how business executives and lawyers can work together to deal efficiently and effectively with matters inextricably part business and part legal. The course will have as its operational context the development and implementation of an actual business situation. Students will be divided into teams with each team having a legal component (in-house counsel) and a business component executive team). The executive team will be primarily responsible for developing and implementing the business aspects of the enterprise, while in-house counsel will be responsible for raising and solving associated legal issues and implementing the necessary legal structures and agreements. The teams will be required to work together as they would be in any business to develop and implement the business plan and to bring the specified business case to commercial viability. There will be a professor from each School with overall responsibility for the course and for the respective groups of students. Individual class sessions will usually involve other professors from the respective schools and outside resources as well. The class meetings will begin at 6:30pm on Mondays and will be held at the Mason School of Business. This is a non-law course cross listed with law. The course materials will be found in Blackboard.

Campaign Finance Law 393

The purpose of this course is to provide an overview and in depth understanding of the finance system at the federal and state levels. This will be accomplished through the analysis of the Federal Election Campaign Act or 1971 as amended (FECA) including extensive analysis of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA). The course will provide a guide to the practice of campaign finance law from a practitioner's perspective. The course will be a thorough review of federal law as it applies to the entities that it affects, including candidates, party committees, PACs, 527's, corporations, non-profit organizations and individuals. The course will emphasize a practical preparation for the practice of law in this area through the review of case law, regulatory trends, as well as a review of the institutions that regulate campaign finance law. Students will be encouraged to follow current developments in campaign finance law during the course and should expect broad discussion about the practical, policy and political aspects of the practice of campaign finance law.

Citizen Lawyers Seminar Law 595

In 1779, Thomas Jefferson and George Wythe got William & Mary Law School started. Their goal was to train citizen lawyers - people who would be good citizens and leaders in their communities, states and nation, as well as good lawyers. This course will examine whether Jefferson and Wythe's model continues to represent an achievable "life's work" for lawyers in the 21st century. We will look at the different roles traditionally played by lawyers in the United States; the extent to which lawyers have provided community, state, and federal leaders for all sorts of venues, public and private; reasons why legal training and experience so well equip lawyers for leadership; and the nature of today's societal distaste for lawyers and what might be done to restore a more balanced view. The course will include practical advice for fledging lawyers. Grades will be based on class participation and a final paper.

Civil Litigation Responses to Acts of Intl Terrorism Law 366

This course will examine important cases in the field of Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act and Anti-Terrorism Act litigation and other areas involving claims against or the defense of foreign governments before United States federal courts and administrative agencies. Students will consider litigation involving Holocaust survivors, victims of the regime of the Islamic Republic of Iran, victims of Hamas suicide bombings and other incidents of terrorism sponsored by foreign states or aided and abetted by international banks. Discussion will focus on the practical implications and challenges of pursuing civil remedies, the enforcement of outstanding judgments and the intersection of such efforts with U.S. foreign policy concerns. Students will be required to write a 10-15 page paper due after the conclusion of the course. 1 credit (pass/fail).

Civil Procedure Law 102

This course focuses on the strategic options federal law provides to persons attempting to resolve disputes through litigation. It introduces students to basic concepts involved in the federal civil adversary system, federal jurisdiction, choice of law, and finality. Students will explore in depth the policies governing and the mechanics involved in pleading, discovery, and disposition before trial.

Community Association Law Law 334

This class will cover the legal structure of covenants and servitudes organizing modern community associations. The number of community associations has increased exponentially over the last two decades as local governments have increasingly looked to the private sector to provide amenities and services historically provided by such governments. In addition, these entities have become more prominent as the development focus has been on higher density housing and mixed use developments which combine commercial and residential uses in integrated planned developments. This course will consider the corporate and governance functions of community associations and the legal documents which provide the contractual framework for such governance. Coverage will include discussions of the respective roles and functions of the various parties involved in the formation, management and operation of Community Associations including local government and zoning officials, land planners, developers, investors, lenders, homeowners, boards of directors, property managers, homeowners committees and citizens groups. Class time will consist of a combination of lectures covering textbook materials and posted reading materials, discussion and consideration of posted problems corresponding to topics covered in class, role playing, and document drafting exercises.

Comparative Constitutional Law Law 637

This course will compare the ways countries and cultures approach and reify constitutional issues. Transnational constitutional norms and themes will be analyzed. Readings discussions and presentations will focus on issues such as roles and functions of constitutions, economic and social protections, forms of government and balances of power, and constitutional protection of human rights. Constitutional processes in the modern era, including in post-conflict environments, will be examined. Course will satisfy the Major Paper Requirement.

Comparative Corporations (Madrid Study Abroad) Law M16

An exploration of the legal structure of corporate institutions both in the United States and Europe, emphasizing the control of managers in publicly held corporations; the mechanisms to establish US/European corporations; and the distribution of authority among shareholders, directors and officers. The course then moves to the differing views of the corporation's proper role in society and the present debate, on both sides of the Atlantic, about the ideal corporate governance structure.

Comparative Law Law 380

This course introduces and compares sources of law, underlying values and goals, and applications of the major legal traditions of the world, including civil law, common law, Islamic law, Talmudic law, customary law, and Asian legal systems as they originally developed and as they are evolving and changing in the world today. Course satisfies the Major Paper Requirement.

Complex Civil Litigation Law 476

This course will focus on the problems and procedures inherent in complex civil litigation. Class actions and other forms of multiple forum cases will be examined. We will discuss complex discovery issues, including electronic discovery, and their possible resolutions. Both pretrial and trial management of complex cases by the court as well as counsel will be presented. We will explore the use of alternative dispute mechanisms and the effect of claim and issue preclusion by judgments in complex litigation.

Conflict of Laws Law 410

How the courts of a state address the fact that other states and nations, with their own laws, exist. The primary focus is choice of law--which state's or nation's law should apply to a case with multi-jurisdictional elements. Also covered will be the constitutional restrictions on choice of law and state court recognition of sister state judgments. Other possible topics are: the extraterritorial application of federal (including constitutional) law, state and federal court recognition of the judgments of foreign nations, and conflicts between federal and state law, including the Erie doctrine.

Constitution & the Family Seminar1 Law 569

The Supreme Court has in many ways 'constitutionalized' the family­ mandating application of select constitutional clauses in deciding many family law disputes. This seminar examines the development of the Court's jurisprudence and explores how (and whether) it implicates numerous contemporary issues, including: the extent to which certain family practices should escape state regulation; the constitutional status of marriage (including same-sex and polygamous marriage); limits on child-rearing and parental rights (including the parental rights of adults not biologically related to a child); and reproductive rights, including rights to alternative methods of reproduction and surrogacy. The seminar will also examine state policy-making responses to changing family structures and shifting constitutional doctrine. Texts: There is no assigned casebook. Readings will include relevant Supreme Court opinions; secondary literature, including law review articles and book excerpts (e.g., addressing theoretical underpinnings of law, providing historical backdrop, and including biographical material); and some state statutory excerpts. Requirements: The seminar requires that students attend and participate actively in class sessions. Students will also present to the class an original research paper of publishable quality. Students with more than one unexcused absence may be dropped from the course. Prerequisites: The family law survey course is useful but not a prerequisite. Grading Policy: Both the research paper and class participation contribute to the final grade for the course.

Constitutional Law Law 109

A study of the structure of government, from the role of the courts and the concept of judicial review, through the distribution of power in the federal system and the allocation of power among the three branches of the government, followed by a study of individual rights protected by the Constitution.

Constitutional Literacy Law 709

The class explores the U.S. Constitution's application to public campuses and prepares law students to teach local high school students about civics through discussion of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The class constitutes the William & Mary Chapter of the Marshall-Brennan Constitutional Literacy Project; therefore, law students are Marshall-Brennan Fellows. The class meets twice a week; it meets once at the law school and once at the Sir Christopher Wren Building. During the law school class, the Marshall-Brennan Fellows will be required to take a stance on constitutional issues as applied to public campuses, speak and think on their feet, attempt to reconcile competing interests, and prepare to teach the weekly class at the Wren Building. During the class at the Wren Building, the Marshall-Brennan Fellows will afford high school students the tools they need to be engaged participants in our republican form of government, thus honoring William & Mary's rich tradition of training aspiring lawyers to be "public citizens". Grading for this course will be on a pass-fail basis. Enrollment is limited to 12 students.

Contracting Issues in Health Law Agreements Law 689

Contracts in the health care field can be both a source of risk and mechanism for preventing and mitigating loss. There are numerous contracts involved in the healthcare industry involving staffing agencies, locum tenens providers, joint ventures, facility management agreements, equipment leasing and purchasing, new construction and renovation contracts, vendor supply and service contracts, clinical trial sponsor agreements, and academic affiliation agreements. The healthcare field has unique contractual considerations, including laws and regulations governing fraud and abuse, anti-kickback (Stark) and IRS rules that regulate contracts between for-profit and non-profit healthcare organizations. This one-week, intensive course will offer a practical examination of healthcare contracts. Students will take part in interactive exercises that identify both positive and negative contractual draftsmanship. The final assignment requires the student to develop a draft contract based on a complex case study.

Contracts Law 110

This course explores legally enforceable promises, normally exchanged as part of a bargain between private parties. Among the topics that may be covered are: bases of enforcement, capacity to contract, contract information, interpretation, conditions, excuse of performance, and remedies for breach.

Copyright Law Law 465

A study of the Copyright Act, with coverage of the subject matter of copyright, copyright ownership and transfers, the nature of copyright rights, copyright infringement, remedies, and First Amendment considerations.

Copyright Litigation Law Seminar Law 567

This course will explore current issues involved in litigating copyright disputes. The class will cover a range of topics including originality questions, derivative works, technology, special music copying concerns, infringement actions, fair use, remedies, and First Amendment considerations.

Corporate Finance Law 437

This course is designed to provide law students with an introduction to the fundamental concepts and analytical methods used in the practice of corporate finance. The topics covered in this course will be similar in many respects to those of a first-year MBA level course in corporate finance, but the organization of the syllabus and the method of instruction will be geared to the needs of law students preparing to be practicing lawyers. The focus of this course will be on the "finance" of corporate finance, rather than the "law" of corporate finance, but the course will be less quantitative than the equivalent course taught in business school. This course is particularly suitable for students interested in the practice of corporate and securities law, but it will also be useful to students intending to pursue careers in business law more generally, including related fields such as commercial litigation, trusts and estates, real estate, tax and government regulation of business.

Corporate Governance & the Public Corporation Seminar1 Law 527

This seminar explores current topics in the field of corporate governance, drawing on business and finance sources, as well as traditional legal materials. The class will delve into corporate theory, the increasing activism of boards of directors, the emerging powers of institutional shareholders, and the changing balance between shareholders, board, and management, and the impact of the courts in encouraging business enterprises. There will be a field trip. Satisfies the writing requirement.

Corporate Taxation Law 438

This course is an introduction to the federal income taxation of corporations and their shareholders. Topics covered will include the tax classification of business entities, incorporation and capital structure, taxable and non-taxable dividends, stock redemptions, corporate liquidations, corporate reorganizations, and an overview of "S corporations". Prerequisite: Law 311 Federal Income Tax Recommended: Law 303 Corporations or Law 320 Business Associations.

Corporations I Law 303

An introductory examination of the law applicable to corporations. This course examines the process of formation and capitalization of corporations, the concept of limited liability, and the role of fiduciary duties in corporate governance. We will examine how these duties are enforced in different settings (public corporations and closed corporations); under state and federal law; and some other recurring litigation and planning issues. Students who take Corporations may not take Business Associations.

Corporations Law M31

An introductory examination of the law applicable to corporations. This course examines the process of formation and capitalization of corporations, the concept of limited liability, and the role of fiduciary duties in corporate governance. We will examine how these duties are enforced in different settings (public corporations and closed corporations); under state and federal law; and some other recurring litigation and planning issues. Students who take Corporations may not take Business Associations.

Criminal Law Law 101

An intensive study of the basic doctrines underlying the criminal law, including actus reus and mens rea; the principal substantive and inchoate crimes; the accountability for the criminal acts of others; and the general defenses to criminal liability.

Criminal Procedure I Law 401

An in-depth study of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution including criminal procedure. Considered are general due process concepts; the right to counsel; arrest, search and seizure; police interrogation and confessions; identification procedures; and the scope and administration of the exclusionary rules.

Criminal Procedure II Law 402

A study of the constitutional and non-constitutional procedural components of the criminal process. Included are discretionary aspects of the decision to charge; the preliminary hearing; pre-trial release; grand jury proceedings; venue; jury selection; trial procedures; sentencing; double jeopardy; appeals, and post-conviction proceedings. Criminal Procedure I is not a prerequisite.

Criminal Procedure Survey Law 403

A survey of all of the major elements of the trial of a criminal case including search and seizure, interrogation, identification procedures, the right to counsel, arrest and prosecution, preliminary hearings, grand juries, jury selection, trial procedure and sentencing. The course will address all of the major issues covered by Criminal Procedure I and II but will do so in less depth. Students who take Criminal Procedure Survey may not take either Criminal Procedure I (Law 401) or Criminal Procedure II (Law 402) for credit.

Current Topics of International Criminal Justice Law 316

This short course offers students an introduction to the international criminal justice system, by critically exploring recent topics and trends. Topics to be covered will include the national prosecution of the crime of piracy, the admissibility of cases at the International Criminal Court (situations of Kenya and Libya), and the position of the Defence in the procedures at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. Grades will be based on a final examination.

Curricular Practical Training in Law Law 769

(1 credit, Pass/Fail). This course is for international JD students in F-1 status who want to engage in paid internships and who require Curricular Practical Training (CPT) work authorization. Although CPT work is not required for unpaid positions, the Reves Center for International Studies strongly recommends credit for unpaid positions. The Law School endorses that recommendation. Prior approval for CPT - for a paid internship - is required from both the University's Designated School Official (DSO) in the Reves Center and the Law School's Associate Dean for Externships. Students on CPT cannot work more than 15 hours per week during fall or spring semesters. There is no weekly hour limit for summer CPT. To apply for CPT work authorization, the student and the student's supervisor must complete a CPT Objectives and Site Agreement. A written report by the student of at least five pages and a written evaluation by the student's field supervisor are due by the date in the CPT course syllabus. The syllabus also describes the format and content of the report and the evaluation. Credit earned for this course does not apply toward the total credits required for the JD degree, nor does the credit count toward the total pass/fail credits permitted for graduation. This course is distinct from credit-bearing externships. If a student wants to earn credit for an unpaid position, that credit must be earned through externships, not CPT. Credit earned and hours worked for the CPT course cannot be counted toward an externship, and externship credit and hours cannot be counted toward the CPT course. However, a student may earn credit from the CPT course and credit from the externship course for the same position if the student satisfies the requirement for both courses.

Debtors, Creditors, and Consumer Bankruptcy Law Law 406

This course will examine extrajudicial and state law collection practices in regard to consumer debt, including discussion of the rights and remedies available to creditors and individual debtors. This class will also focus on federal bankruptcy laws applicable to consumers in chapter 7 and 13 of the Bankruptcy Code. We will review chapters 7 and 13 in depth, highlighting the similarities and differences between the two, and examining the role of the bankruptcy court and trustee with respect to cases conducted under each chapter. Student performance will be evaluated using one exam at the end of the semester.

Directed Reading-CLCT Summer Law 703T

An examination of a specialized subject that generally is not offered as a course within our curriculum on a regular basis. This course is arranged between an individual student or group of students (maximum, 5) through readings selected in agreement by the directing faculty member and students. Prior approval by the Vice Dean is required. Students are limited to one Directed Reading credit per year.

Directed Reading Law 703

An examination of a specialized subject that generally is not offered as a course within our curriculum on a regular basis. This course is arranged between an individual student or group of students (maximum, 5) through readings selected in agreement by the directing faculty member and students. Prior approval by the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs is required. Students are limited to one Directed Reading credit per year. Graded on a pass/fail basis.

Domestic Violence Clinic Law 745

The goal of this clinic is to represent victims in our community who may not be able to afford legal services so that they can obtain protective orders, and other needed services arising out of that abuse, as well as to educate the community about domestic violence and safety planning. This clinic offers 12 students who have their third-year practice certificate the opportunity to work with the Williamsburg Legal Aid Office (Legal Aid Society of Eastern Virginia, aka LASEVA) and local shelters and organizations to provide legal assistance to victims of domestic violence and their families. Students will learn the effects of domestic violence on victims, their families, and the community at-large. Students will learn to interview clients, examine witnesses, and prepare for hearings. Under the supervision of attorneys, students will provide legal representation to victims of domestic violence in protection order hearings, child custody and support hearings, and advocate for clients to obtain other needed services. Students will learn about and advise clients on safety planning strategies. In addition to meetings with Professor Darryl Cunningham, LASEVA's Senior Attorney in Williamsburg, and the clinic’s resident Fellow, Lindsay Barna, there is a one and a half hour classroom meeting per week and planning sessions to prepare presentations to educate the local community about domestic violence. To receive credit for this course, each student MUST attend the first meeting. Pass/Fail course.

Drafting for Corporate & Finance Lawyers Seminar Law 525

This is a seminar addressing the challenges of drafting to facilitate corporate transactions and meet public company disclosure obligations. This course will focus on understanding and manipulating standard agreement forms such as a stock purchase agreement, an asset purchase agreement and related ancillary agreements. The course also will address some of the intricacies of drafting securities laws disclosure. Prerequisite: Law 303 Corporations or Law 320 Business Associations.

E-Commerce Law Law 359

Electronic commerce has swept the nation and continues to increase in size and importance. This three credit course will focus the effect of information technology on commercial transactions by considering current and emerging legal issues. The course will use Ronald J. Mann's Electronic Commerce (4th edition) as the class text with class sessions also using the problem discussion method. Although the course will have a final examination, it will also include drafting exercises, and students will frequently be asked to assume the role of a transactional attorney during class discussion. Attendance, class participation, and the completion of problems will account for 20% of the final grade. The final contract review exercise will account for an additional 20% of the grade. The final examination will comprise the remaining 60% of the course grade.

Economic Analysis of the Law Law 454

A study of the many applications of economic reasoning to problems of law and public policy including economic regulation of business; antitrust enforcement; and more basic areas such as property rights, tort and contract law and remedies, and civil or criminal procedures. No particular background in economics is required; relevant economic concepts will be developed through analysis of various legal applications.

Education Law Law 362

An examination of principles of school law by use, in part, of the care study approach. Legal foundations of public and non-public schools are studied with consideration given to the Virginia School code. Basic legal principles and guidelines for assisting teachers, administrators and professional support personnel are developed.

Elder Law Clinic Law 784

This clinic will offer eight students the opportunity to learn about the substantive legal issues affecting the elderly. The clinic is open to both 2Ls and 3Ls. The experience will also help to improve the students' interviewing, counseling, research, writing and advocacy skills as they advance their client's interests. Students will gain an appreciation of the potential for abuse of the elderly in today's society, and identify and manage professional ethical issues encountered by attorneys representing this population. They will hone the acquired knowledge and skills by presenting public seminars on issues important to the elderly community. Students in the ELC will provide assistance and advocacy in matters involving competency, nursing home issues, and Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security and other public benefit programs, including non-service related pension and related benefits from the VA. Under the supervision of the ELC's managing attorney, the free legal services the students will provide will also include the drafting of powers of attorney, advanced medical directives and living wills, simple estate planning, creation of guardianships and conservatorships, and estate recovery issues. These activities will engage ELC students in the factual and legal investigation required of an attorney, and will teach the students client relation skills required to serve the elderly population. Preparing the documents required in the practice of elder law and advocating for their clients will also allow students experience in navigating the often complicated family relationships that are impacted when achieving the elderly client's goals. Students will also gain skills in working with state and local agencies on elder law issues, and in preparing themselves and their clients for legal and administrative hearings. Students will be graded on the quality of their work in educating the elderly, representing clients and handling cases, their ability to work collaboratively with other students in the clinic, and their written case studies and plans. Students will be required to attend regular class sessions, and to work on clinic cases and assist clinic operations for 8 hours each week, including case rounds and meetings with the supervising attorney. This clinic will be taught by Professor Helena Mock, and the seminar and case rounds will be held on Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30-9:45 am. To receive credit for this course, each student MUST attend a mandatory 6-hour. session (10am-3pm) on the first Friday of the semester. Graded course.

Election Law Practicum-Challenges of the Law 376

General Counsel: This course will explore the fundamental roles played by lawyers who work in-house at companies, political parties, and other entities (campaigns, etc.), including the roles of a legal technician, wise counselor and leader. The course will advance for critical analysis the idea of the general counsel as a complex business leader who is required to navigate between different constituencies (i.e. regulators, the media, senior officials). The course will address the conflicting concerns faced by these in-house practitioners by examining a series of hypothetical cases. The 'cases' in this course involve questions beyond narrow legal issues and delve into larger issues of policy and politics, by using specific illustrations drawn from the political and business world. These cases involve a broad range of considerations: risk management, public policy, politics, and reputation. For each case the students would be given the factual scenario, reports from the media, and other background materials. The students would be directed to issue spot and research the laws that could be involved. For each class the students would come prepared to discuss not only the scenario itself and the law implicated, but also appropriate responses by general counsels to each scenario, examining the pros and cons of responding to the situations in differing ways. Each student would be required to prepare a 3 to 5-page memo examining each of the cases, including analysis of key legal, public relations, and corporate citizenship issues. Each memo must also include recommendations on appropriate responses by the company/campaign/party involved in the case. The papers will be of the type used in practice by in-house counsel, in presenting emergency items to management and the board for action. In addition, each student would be asked to present his or her memo once during the semester to the rest of the class with the class assuming the role of the Board/management, and asking the student to discuss the identified issues and make recommendations. Grading will be based upon the quality of the papers submitted (80%) as well as the presentations made to the class (10%). Participation in class discussion will count for 10% of the total grade. Pass/Fail.

Election Law Law 398

This course will examine the laws that govern the political process in the United States. Topics will include the right to vote, political representation, election administration, political parties, ballot initiatives, and campaign finance. The goal of the course is to provide students with a solid foundation in the basic principles of election law in this country.

Electronic Discovery & Data Seizure-CLCT Summer Law 310T

Introduces electronic discovery as an essential part of legal practice. The class takes a practice-oriented approach and presents the relevant case law and the applicable Federal Rules of Civil and Criminal Procedure. Identifies both the client's and attorney's responsibilities in the production and preservation of electronically stored information. Provides the basic technical knowledge to understand the legal requirements to help attorneys and clients avoid the shocking consequences and potential sanctions handed down in court.

Electronic Discovery and Data Seizure Law 310

This course addresses the legal and practical issues inherent in conducting electronic discovery in civil cases, especially under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as well as the law of electronic data search and seizure under the Fourth Amendment and Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. No special information technology knowledge or background is required.

Employment Discrimination Law 452

This course surveys the laws prohibiting discrimination in employment. In particular, the course emphasizes case law under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (race, religion, sex, or national origin), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Students will learn the basic doctrinal frameworks applicable to disparate treatment, disparate impact, and mixed-motives cases and trace their evolution through statutes and judicial decisions. The course also will include brief overviews of remedies for and economic theories of employment discrimination. Employment Law (LAW 456) is not a prerequisite.

Employment Law Law 456

This course will address the basic common law and contemporary statutes governing the employment relationship, with an emphasis on their practical application in today's private-sector workplace. Topics to be addressed will include establishment of the employment relationship, wage and hour regulation, conditions of employment, discharge and termination, and non-competition and other post-employment obligations. The course will also include a brief review of unemployment compensation and workplace health and safety issues, as well as an introduction to employment discrimination law. This course will not address traditional labor law nor will it cover issues unique to public-sector employment. Neither will it significantly overlap the Law 452 Employment Discrimination course.

Energy Law Law 426

Energy law is at the forefront of developments in natural resources law, public utility law, and environmental law. Policy debates are shaping these developments at the local, state, federal, and international level, giving energy lawyers a real opportunity to influence the world we live in. This course covers the laws and policies that govern the exploitation of energy resources and the production and distribution of electricity. Course coverage begins with traditional principles of utility law and regulation (including rate regulation) and progresses to focus on laws and policies relating to natural gas and electricity. The main focus will be on energy law issues that arise in the context of one major energy- producing activity—the production and use of electric power—with some limited attention to parallel themes in other areas such as natural gas and transportation. We will explore general legal issues in these areas: the role and regulation of markets, the tension between economic and environmental regulation, the degree of national versus decentralized regulation, and the roles law might play in impacting not only supply but also consumer behavior.

Entertainment Law Litigation Seminar Law 693

This course will explore current issues involved in American entertainment law as litigated in our courts. The unifying features here will be problems that are current, practical, complex, and that involve constitutional, statutory, case law, and policy analysis. We will focus on four principal areas: protection of ideas by contract, defamation, rights of privacy (both public disclosure of private facts and false light), and the right of publicity. We will not consider in depth Copyright or Trademark Law. Enrollment is limited. Class will meet in one two-hour session each week. The first hour will be a discussion led by students on the assigned topic; I will then lead a further discussion of that topic for the second hour. At least two weeks prior to the designated oral assignment, students must meet with me to discuss the substance of their presentation, the format for it, and the preparation of discussion questions for the other students in the class. Depending on class size, each student will prepare either two or three presentations as part of a group. The required book for the class is Nimmer, et al, CASES AND MATERIALS ON COPYRIGHT AND OTHER ASPECTS OF ENTERTAINMENT LITIGATION INCLUDING UNFAIR COMPETITION, DEFAMATION, PRIVACY (8th edition). The grade for this class will be determined as follows: 50% for class presentation and class participation apart from the presentations, and 50% for a paper due the last day of class. There will be no final exam. The paper, approximately 20-25 pages double spaced, can be on any subject area covered in the course, and the student is free to consider alternative formats for the writing; e.g., essay, client opinion letter, appellate brief motion, judicial opinion, or model statute with commentary. By February 10, each student must submit, in writing, a short description of the subject to be covered in the paper along with a statement of the format to be used. To receive credit for this course, each student must attend the first two meetings and at least 10 of the 12 remaining class sessions. Assignments for class presentations will be made prior to the 2nd meeting of the class and distributed electronically. The last class will be a late afternoon session at my home for dinner. Students will be required to check email accounts on a daily basis. Students who have taken Law 457 Entertainment Law Litigation may NOT take this seminar.

Entertainment Litigation Law Law 457

This course will explore current issues involved in American entertainment law as litigated in our courts. The unifying features here will be problems that are current, practical, complex, and that involve constitutional, statutory, caselaw, and policy analysis. We will focus on four principal areas: protection of ideas by contract, defamation, rights of privacy [both public disclosure of private facts and false light], and the right of publicity. We will not consider in depth Copyright or Trademark Law. Enrollment is limited. Class will meet in one two-hour session each week. The first hour will be a discussion led by students on the assigned topic; I will then lead a further discussion of that topic for the second hour. At least two weeks prior to the designated oral assignment, students must meet with me to discuss the substance of their presentation, the format for it, and the preparation of discussion questions for the other students in the class. Depending on class size, each student will prepare either two or three presentations as part of a group. The required book for the class is Nimmer, et al, CASES AND MATERIALS ON COPYRIGHT AND OTHER ASPECTS OF ENTERTAINMENT LITIGATION INCLUDING UNFAIR COMPETITION, DEFAMATION, PRIVACY [8th Edition]. The grade for this class will be determined as follows: 50% for class presentation and class participation apart from the presentations, and 50% for a paper due the last day of class. There will be no final exam. The paper, approximately 20-25 pages double spaced, can be on any subject area covered in the course, and the student is free to consider alternative formats for the writing; e.g., essay, client opinion letter, appellate brief, motion, judicial opinion, or model statute with commentary. By February 10, each student must submit, in writing, a short description of the subject to be covered in the paper along with a statement of the format to be used. To receive credit for this course, each student must attend the first two meetings and at least 10 of the 12 remaining class sessions. Assignments for class presentations will be made prior to the 2nd meeting of the class and distributed electronically. The last class will be a late afternoon session at my home for dinner. Students will be required to check email accounts on a daily basis.

Environmental Law Law 424

A study of the nature and causes of environmental pollution and of the main legal techniques for its control. The course will consider the common law, the environmental impact assessment process (e.g., the National Environmental Policy Act), and the basic regulatory framework for air, water and solid and hazardous waste control (the Federal Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), with attention given under each statute to the basic regulatory framework and the main policy issues presented by it.

Environmental Policy Law 345

This course is offered by the Public Policy Program and offers limited enrollment to law students. Law students must receive professor permission to enroll. The course will explore policy making for environmental problems and will focus on issues that are local, national, and international. We will primarily focus on national environmental policy, and how that policy is implemented at a local and regional level. Issues we will explore will include water pollution policy and land-use in the Bay, U.S. Marine Mammal Policy, and U. S. Pollution Policy. For each of these issues, we will examine the U.S. laws and regulations as well as each agency's approach for quantitatively assessing the benefits and costs of environmental policy.

European Internet Law (Madrid Study Abroad) Law M18

An overview of this increasingly globalized area of the law through an examination of how the European Union (EU) and European countries, together with their respective courts, have addressed it. After the study of the Internet itself and of Internet law and governance, the course will cover two main areas: first, the basis of the regulation of the physical network for information and communication technologies in Europe according to the telecom policies; second, the regulation of Net contents by focusing on the following aspects: civil rights in cyberspace (including its projection on labor relations), substantive and jurisdictional problems arising from cybercrime, the law of intellectual property in the Internet and electronic commerce. Finally, we will address future trends in the Internet world (such as big data, the Internet of Things and cloud computing) as well as their respective legal implications.

European Union Law & Policy (Madrid Study Abroad) Law M05

An introduction to the European Union (EU) legal system and the political work of its institutions, with an appendix on NAFTA. The course studies EU decision-making, focusing on the Commission, the Council and European Parliament. Attention will be given to the Community's system of legal remedies and the European Court of Justice, its constitutional principles, and the expansion of Community powers. Finally, the course covers rules on free movement of goods inside the European market.

European Union Law Law 436

The European Union (EU) is different in many ways from a Federation, although the exercise of power in the Union has some federal traits and one can draw some useful comparisons. "European Union Law", in any case, is a heading that today refers to as many topics as "US Law" would. Therefore, it is impossible to study with some depth in one single course all relevant and substantive aspects of European Union Law. In this introductory course we will study the basic Law of European Union (institutions, law-making procedures, legal remedies, role of the European Court, relationship between EC law and national law, all of this taking into account the recently passed Constitution). This will provide you with analytical tools to feel comfortable when you have to work in any area of substantive EC law. The method of instruction will be the typical interactive approach used in American law schools, although at times I will introduce or summarize a topic with a lecture. We will be using a set of teaching materials that you should obtain before the course starts. These materials are included in the book "Foster on EU Law", by Nigel Foster. Class attendance is mandatory. Participation will be counted as an important part of the grade (50%). The exam will be a two hour exam with two or three questions based on cases pending before the European Court or important current issues in the legal and political development of the EU.

Evidence-CLCT Summer Law 309T

Intensively discusses the law of evidence, primarily utilizing Federal Rules of Evidence. Topics addressed include relevance, authentication, real evidence, competence, hearsay, impeachment of witnesses, and privileges.

Evidence Law 309

An intensive study of the law of evidence primarily utilizing the Federal Rules of Evidence. Topics addressed by the course include relevance, authentication, real evidence, competence, heresay, impeachment of witnesses, and privileges. This course satisfies the Third Year Practice requirement.

Family Law Clinic Law 746

The Family Law Clinic (formerly called the Legal Aid Clinic) offers six students who have their third-year practice certificate the opportunity to represent and advise clients of limited financial means from the Williamsburg office of the Legal Aid Society of Eastern Virginia (LASEVA), in divorce, custody, support and equitable distribution matters. Attorney Darryl Cunningham supervises students and their case work. In addition to a weekly seminar, additional time commitments are required by work load and court schedule. Weekly clinic seminar Wednesdays 3:30-5:15 pm. To receive credit for this course, each student MUST attend the first meeting. Pass/fail course.

Family Law Law 416

This course covers requisites for marriage, pre-nuptials, paternity, property management during marriage, spousal abuse, parental child rearing rights, grounds for divorce, property distribution upon divorce, consequences of cohabitation prior to marriage, alimony, child support, and child custody and visitation.

Family Wealth Transactions Law 469

A study of the tax and non-tax rules applicable to wealth transfers. The course will emphasize planning for intra- family transfers. It will also cover 'living' wills, durable powers of attorney, and special problems associated with disability. The student will be required to synthesize federal gift, estate and generation skipping transfers with state property, decedent's estate and trust law considerations. Prerequisites or co-requisites: Law 311 Federal Income Taxation and Law 305 Trusts and Estates.

Federal Government Externship Law 758

Students earn academic credit by externing for federal agencies other than federal public defenders (which are covered by the Criminal Litigation Externship) and U.S. Attorney offices (which are covered by the U.S. Attorney Externship). See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

Federal Income Taxation Law 311

A study of the basic laws relating to federal income taxation of the individual. Included are problems relating to computing gross income, the reduction of gross income to taxable income, and the recognition and character of gains and losses from disposition of property.

Federal Tax Clinic Law 743

This clinic offers eight students the opportunity to assist in the representation of low income Virginia taxpayers seeking assistance from the nonprofit Community Tax Law Project before the IRS, U.S. Tax Court, and U.S. District Court. Work is done under Richmond attorney Craig Bell. Opportunities are provided to meet experienced judges and lawyers in the field, and to observe tax proceedings (which might require mediation rather than litigation). Students will find it helpful if they have taken Federal Income Tax, however Tax is not a prerequisite. Weekly clinic seminar Thursdays 6:00-8:30 pm. To receive credit for this course, each student must attend the first meeting. Pass/fail course.

First Amendment - The Religion Clauses Law 480

In this course we will study the First Amendment's religion clauses - the Free Exercise clause and the Establishment Clause. The core of the course examines how government interacts with religion, and the interplay between free exercise and establishment, in three key areas: government regulation of religious activity and institutions, government funding of religious activity and institutions, and governmental attempts to promote a common culture or political ethos. Our primary focus will be on current First Amendment doctrines concerning religion. Time permitting, we may also examine the intersection between the religion clauses and the First Amendment's Free Speech Clause.

Food and Drug Law Law 370

This course will examine the ways in which Congress, the Food and Drug Administration, and the courts have gone about regulating the food and drug industries. We will highlight current issues which may include the FDA's jurisdiction and enforcement authority concerning dietary supplements; the regulation of food additives; food labeling; the implications of globalism in the pharmaceutical industry; "orphan drugs;" and the relationship between federal regulation and state law. The course will be graded on the basis of in-class participation and a final examination.

Foreign & International Research Law 727

Foreign and International Research is a 1-credit pass/fail course that introduces students to a variety of foreign and international law sources and research methods over seven class sessions. Students will learn how to efficiently research secondary information, treaties, and other international agreements, foreign and European Union law, and United Nations documents. Classes meet once a week for seven weeks, and students complete in-class and out-of class research assignments. There is no final exam or required textbook.

Fundamentals of Environmental Science for Policy Law 346

This course is intended primarily for students in Law, Public Policy and related disciplines. It is cross-listed with PUBP 600. It is designed to introduce the students to the science of natural systems and ecological processes. Through readings, lectures and discussion, the first half of the course examines the current state of our understanding in terms that will give the student confidence and the facility to critically assess theories and observations in environmental science. With this as a foundation, the second half of the course begins with an instructor led discussion of the enhanced greenhouse effect followed by student led discussions of other major case examples such as coastal eutrophication, biodiversity loss, water resources, sea level rise, environmental contamination, land use trends, and invasive species impacts. Student expectations include mid-term and final exams, and the development of a case study presentation extending over two class periods. This is a non-law course crosslisted with Law and the course materials will be found in Blackboard.

Gender and Human Rights Seminar2 Law 607

This course studies and critically assesses the role of international human rights law in bringing about social change. The course uses gender, specifically the treatment and status of women, as a lens for exploring this issue. The course begins with theories on state behavior, which will provide a foundation for exploring the role of law in changing state practices. Topics to be explored will include international trafficking of women, gender and citizenship, women¿s political participation, the regulation of gender issues by customary law in plural legal systems, women¿s access to land, violence against women, and gender mainstreaming in national policy development. Through study of these specific topics, students will examine the potential and limits of law as a mechanism for bringing about particular substantive changes within a society or organization. This course will complement the existing international law courses that address human rights, such as Human Rights Law, International Trade Law, and Public International Law. The Human Rights Law course provides students with a foundation in the fundamental aspects of human rights law, which includes the sources of international law, United Nations human rights instruments, methods for enforcing human rights law, and non-governmental organizations that promote human rights enforcement. This seminar will provide in-depth coverage of the topics noted above. Preferred Course: Public International Law, Human Rights Law.

Global Approaches to Immigration & Citizenship Law 673

This seminar examines the variety of ways that immigration and citizenship issues are regulated outside of the United States. Students will become familiar with international, regional, and domestic legal rules governing immigration and citizenship. Topics to be explored will include access to citizenship, admission requirements, deportation, and unauthorized migration. Legal regimes to be explored include the European Union, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Canada, Haiti, and the United Arab Emirates. Grades will be based upon class participation, a class presentation, written assignments, and a final paper. It is recommended, but not required, that students take Immigration & Citizenship prior to this seminar.

Global Skills/International Dispute Resolution Law M07

This course prepares participants to become better lawyers in a global context. The sessions will focus on how to negotiate better in transnational settings, understand power and influence in organizations and develop political capital, and become effective lawyers in international mediation practice and arbitration proceedings. These set of interpersonal and legal skills will be acquired through cases studies, role play and simulations and other hands-on exercises.

Government Contracts Seminar Law 546

This course will examine the processes by which the federal government awards and administers contracts ranging from acquisitions of multi-billion dollar weapon systems and large public works contracts, to routine purchases of office equipment and supplies. Discussions will focus on how federal contracting differs from contracting under state law, and address special topics unique to government contracting, such as procurement ethics, socioeconomic considerations, bid protests, changes, contract disputes and litigation, fiscal law requirements, and terminations.

Health Law and Policy Law 458

This class will give students an overview of the U.S. health care system. We will examine various legal and policy issues related to the health care system, including: the legal structure of the patient-physician relationship; how our legal system addresses issues of quality and choice; structures and mechanisms of the Affordable Care Act; Federal-State tensions regarding insurance regulation; how our legal system regulates the behavior of medical professionals and institutions; and patient privacy and confidentiality. Students will develop an understanding of the trajectory that the U.S. health care system has taken in these areas, as well as the current reforms implicating them. In addition, we will examine laws and policies that surround issues of public health, such as vaccines, obesity rates, and State-mandated screenings and data collection.

Historic Preservation Seminar Law 696

Historic preservation law has become increasingly important to citizens, governments, and land owners in cities and other developed areas. The legal issues presented in this area of law can only be understood in conjunction with the historical, aesthetic, political and administrative elements that affect how land and buildings are to be used and reused in our modern world. This seminar will examine the preservation of buildings and sites as part of the study of land use or urban development law. It will provide a treatment of local preservation law and an extensive consideration of federal law dealing with preservation issues. Each student will be expected to actively participate in the seminar and prepare a 15 to 20 page paper.

History of the Common Law Seminar2 Law 677

We use the term "common law" to refer to the Anglo-American legal system as a whole, but England and early America were actually patchworks of competing legal systems. There was no common law of marriage or probate, both of which came from canon law, or of trusts, which came from equity. Devices like the fee tail, which we think of as ancient common law, were actually statutory. Judicial review might have its origins in the relationship between England and the colonies, not in traditional common law doctrines, and an important point of debate after 1789 was the degree to which the U.S. constitution had either abrogated or adopted the common law. Over time, most of these competing legal systems have been incorporated into the system we know as the common law. In this course, we will examine the history of the common law from its beginning in the 12th century to the present by looking at its interaction and competition with these different systems of law. We will read and discuss both primary and secondary sources. Students may choose to write either a research paper satisying the upper level writing requirement or three 7-10 page response papers that will not. Grading will be based on class participation and the written work submitted.

Human Rights Law Europe (Madrid Study Abroad) Law M01

A survey of European human rights and freedoms, both under the European Convention of Human Rights and the legal system of the European Union. Special attention shall be devoted to differences in the legal framework and techniques used under the two European systems, as well as its main enforcers: the European Court of Human Rights, in Strasbourg, and the Court of Justice of the European Union in Luxembourg.

Human Rights Law Law 382

This course will cover fundamental international human rights law. It will address the sources of international law, United Nations human rights instruments, domestic jurisdiction, organizations for enforcement for human rights law, non-governmental organizations that promote human rights enforcement, and current issues in human rights law.

Immigration & Citizenship Law 485

This course will examine federal immigration law and policy. Topics include citizenship, admissions, deportation, an introduction to refugee law, and the role of the courts in reviewing the actions of executive officials. We will examine the history of immigration to the United States, the constitutional rights of non citizens, the federal agencies that administer the immigration and citizenship laws, undocumented immigration, and the balance between national security and openness to non citizens.

Independent Legal Research-CLCT Summer Law 704T

This course requires the completion of a scholarly paper on a subject selected by the student, under the supervision of the course faculty member. Does not satisfy the Writing Requirement.

Independent Legal Research Law 704

This course requires the completion of a scholarly paper on a subject selected by the student, under the supervision of a faculty member. Does not satisfy the writing requirement. For Law 704-02 or 03, please see term description.

Independent Legal Writing-CLCT Summer1 Law 705T

The course requires the completion of a significant research paper on a topic selected by the student, under the supervision of the course faculty member. Students may enroll in the course for credit no more than twice and this course satisfies the Writing Requirement.

Independent Legal Writing1 Law 705

This course requires the completion of a significant research paper on a topic selected by the student, under the supervision of a faculty member. Students may enroll in this course for credit no more than twice and this course satisfies the writing requirement. An important goal of the major paper requirement is to improve students' writing skills. Faculty supervisors should communicate this goal to students at the beginning of the process and reinforce it throughout the paper-writing process, especially after submission of the first draft. Papers that satisfy the major paper requirement should evolve through four major stages, each of which should occur in consultation with the supervising faculty member: 1. Topic Development: The student should produce a succinct, coherent topic statement that sets out the thesis of the proposed paper. 2. Outline: The student should produce a reasonably comprehensive outline of the paper, including a statement of the basic steps in the argument, the major sources used, and a tentative conclusion or a comparable writing. 3. First Draft: The student should produce a first draft of the paper in time for the supervising faculty member to make comments and for the student to respond to those comments in the form of a second draft. Normally, the first draft should be submitted to the supervising faculty member by the end of the 10th week of classes. 4. Final Draft: The student should turn in the final draft of the paper by noon on the last day of exams for the semester, or as otherwise designated by the professor.

Influence of Christianity on American Law Seminar-2 Law 659

A Historical Perspective: This course will present students with the opportunity to consider the influences of Christianity upon American law from the colonial era to the present. Students will study the various forms and expressions of Christian belief that evolved in the colonies and in the United States and the extent to which these popular religious doctrines and practices expressed themselves in law. Special attention will be given to the founding era's separation of church and state and the subsequent sporadic evangelical movements that sought to embrace the idea of a "Christian nation" in the law and institutions of the country. The Second Awakening, the Benevolent Empire, and the Social Gospel Movement, for example, as well as conceptions of the social good that such movements advocated, will be placed in an academic dialogue with the principles and doctrines of law. In this dialogue, tensions inherent in the law's devotion to rights and Christianity's prioritization of duties and the social good will be illuminated. The course will be taught almost exclusively from history texts and will require classroom discussion of the assigned texts. This course is a variable, two to three credit seminar which optionally meets the writing requirement. Students will be assessed on the basis of their class participation and a final paper of no more than twenty (20) pages for the two credit option. Those students who choose the 3 credit option will write a longer paper which meets the major writing requirement.

Influence of Legal Profession on Legislative and2 Law 561

Judicial Process Seminar: George Wythe was the 'Father' of the William & Mary Law School. He was an extraordinary lawyer who served in all three branches of Virginia's government. Wythe's curriculum insisted his students actively participate in mock legislative sessions which dealt with the substantive and procedural aspects of important legislation pending before the Virginia General Assembly. Wythe understood the inevitable and critical interplay between the legal profession, politics and public policy. History suggests the legal profession has disproportionately impacted legislative outcomes. Our focus this semester will be to examine how this principle remains a truism in the 21st century. In 2007, the Virginia General Assembly passed the highly controversial 'Omnibus Transportation Bill' that was dramatically impacted by the legal profession at every conceivable stage; and ultimately declared unconstitutional by the Virginia Supreme Court. This course will use this bill as a framework to more broadly examine the legal profession's influence on both the substantive and procedural history of legislation. Active student participation will be expected as we analyze, dissect and advocate as appellants and appellees the constitutional merits of this legislation, offering individually, student drafted amendments to cure any constitutional infirmities.

Innocence Project Clinic I Law 747

This clinic offers eight students the opportunity to engage in the legal investigation and research of inmate claims of actual innocence under Richmond attorney Fred Gerson. Using primary sources including police and forensic reports, court pleadings, transcripts, appellate briefs and opinions, students will research and prepare written summaries of the cases referred to the Clinic by the Mid-Atlantic Innocence Project (MAIP), so that MAIP may determine whether or not to pursue the innocence claim. Students will have the opportunity to conduct interviews of inmates and possible witnesses, as well as other preparatory case work with private investigators, forensics experts and attorneys. The Clinic's focus will include DNA evidence, investigative activities, post-conviction remedies and procedures, and in-class simulations. Students will gain an understanding of the various ways innocent people are convicted and discuss remedies for exoneration. In-class discussions will systematically prepare students to undertake the investigations necessary to assess prisoner's claims of factual innocence. Although the investigations are as varied as the cases, they can generally be placed into two categories; (1) cases involving searches for DNA evidence, and (2) cases involving non-biological evidence. In all of the cases, students, supervised by the professor and MAIP staff and volunteers, will work with the prisoner, former attorneys, courts, and police departments to create complete files to determine an investigative strategy. In DNA cases, students contact (and sometimes visit) courthouses, police departments, labs, and hospitals to determine whether any testable physical evidence remains in files or warehouses from cases that are often decades old. In non-DNA cases, students will interview eyewitnesses, alibi witnesses, co-defendants, and, in some cases, alternative suspects, and perform other necessary investigation, again to include travel throughout the Commonwealth. Occasionally cases also require travel to a prison in order to interview a prisoner. Ideally, in instances where MAIP accepts the case and assigns it to an attorney, the Clinic students who worked on the case will remain involved with it, thus preserving continuity and providing students with an even fuller learning experience. Innocence Project II will be offered in the spring semester for those who choose to enroll and have successfully completed Innocence Project Clinic I; ideally the students from IP I will enroll in IP II, for a more in-depth semester of work and skill building on their assigned cases. Prerequisites: Students must be enrolled in or have completed Evidence. Weekly clinic seminar Thursdays 6:00-8:30 pm. To receive credit for this course, each student MUST attend the first meeting. Pass/fail course. Pre or Co-requisite: Evidence Law 309 or Law 309T.

Innocence Project Clinic II Law 785

Students in the Innocence Project Clinic II will continue to work on cases assigned in the Innocence Project Clinic I, engaging in more in-depth investigative activities, post-conviction remedies and procedures, and in-class simulations relating to inmate claims of actual innocence. Building on the foundation laid in Innocence Project Clinic I, the in-class portion will focus on client and case specific theories of innocence, and will include skills development in interviewing witnesses, handling ethical issues, organizing investigative tasks, and digesting transcripts, among others. The class is designed such that students will act as intake investigators to determine whether representation of a prisoner's claim of innocence should be undertaken. The work entails understanding core legal concepts relating to criminal trials, reading transcripts, performing legal analysis, and investigating cases in order to determine whether an inmate has a claim worth pursuing. Prerequisites: Innocence Project Clinic I

Insurance Law 408

This course will survey the fundamental legal principles governing selected kinds of insurance including: automobile, fire and property (homeowners), liability, life, health, and disability. Among the topics examined will be the formation and operation of the insurance contract, coverage and exclusions, insurable interest, the claims process and subrogation. A practical approach will be featured, placing students in the roles of attorneys for the insurer, insured and third party claimant as issues are discussed.

Intellectual Property Law 448

A review of the legal protection of artistic, technical and business creativity through the law of copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets.

International Arbitration Seminar Law 658

Arbitration has become the prevailing method for the resolution of disputes in international commerce. This course will survey the sources of law governing the practice of international commercial arbitration. Those sources include international treaties, domestic legislation, the rules of arbitral institutions, and various sources of "soft law" promulgated by organizations such as the International Bar Association. Particular attention will be given to both the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards and the United States Federal Arbitration Act, although students will also be exposed to arbitration statutes in other jurisdictions through the UNCITRAL model law. Students will read U.S. Supreme Court cases applying the FAA, in particular the Court's "arbitrary" jurisprudence. Some unique features of arbitration in the U.S., such as class arbitration and consumer arbitration will be explored. In addition, the course will survey the unique aspects of arbitration of investment disputes against sovereign states under investment treaties. Throughout the course, students will be exposed to various practical issues, including how to draft an enforceable arbitration clause to identify "pathological" clauses. This will be a graded course and the final grade will be based on a final examination and class participation.

International Business Transactions Law 496

This course will survey a variety of laws that U.S. companies contend with when doing business overseas. Areas may include corporate law and securities regulation, commercial sales, employment discrimination, human rights, anti-corruption, intellectual property, dispute resolution, and various dimensions of international trade law. It will have both a doctrinal and a practical component. The course will be graded on the basis of in-class participation and a final examination.

International Criminal Law Law 385

This course examines the emergence of international criminal law during the last century and assesses the desirability and efficacy of international criminal prosecutions as a response to large-scale violence. The course traces the development of international criminal law, focusing primary attention on events taking place since the Nuremburg and Tokyo Tribunals, and concentrating in particular on the work of the international criminal tribunals for the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and East Timor, as well as the International Criminal Court. The court traces the substantive development of international criminal law through an examination of the core international crimes over which these bodies have jurisdiction: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and aggression. The course will likewise trace the development of international criminal procedure, a unique body of law that blends features of adversarial and non-adversarial criminal justice systems in an effort to meet the challenges of prosecuting large-scale crimes that can span many years, many miles, and feature many thousands of victims. Finally, the course will examine the political context in which the prosecution of international crimes takes place. It will consider the effect of such prosecutions on peace negotiations and the desirability of international prosecutions in comparison with other responses to mass atrocities, including domestic and transnational criminal prosecutions, truth commissions, lustration efforts, and reparations schemes. Completion of Public International Law is desirable though not compulsory.

International Election Principles Law 381

The purpose of this course is to examine international election standards based on the rule of law. The ultimate goal is to establish knowledgeable, predictable, rule-based decision-making that limits the power entrusted to government officials, while concurrently encouraging the widest development of democratic systems. The course will cover each step in the electoral process: (1) recognition of political parties and which candidates will be qualified to stand for election; (2) voter registration including registration, maintenance of lists, grounds for suspension and reinstatement; (3) absentee ballots, if they are to be used, as well as the procedures for their issuance and as to their counting;(4) early voting and remote voting if it is accepted as a means of increasing participation; (5) ballots, ballots design, machinery, pre-vote verification, the observation of that process so that it is transparent, ballot collection, computerized and other mechanical voting systems, ballot audits, physical security, and the availability of election day remedies; (6) verification of who is, and is not, a voter; (7) the conduct of the election itself, including how officials are trained and qualified; (8) the process for recounts; (9) the process for challenges and contests; and, (10) administration and supervision applying objective standards. Each of these steps will involve the class in a discussion of the development of concrete standards for the international community to apply in the election process. Pass/Fail

International Environmental Law Law M12

The course considers topics such as liability in transboundary pollution; institutional framework of international environmental regimes; the cooperative system of management of global environmental problems (climate change, biodiversity loss...) and of the global commons (atmosphere, oceans, Antarctica....); debt for nature swaps; environmental restraints on international aid and technology transfer; international trade and the environment (WTO and the environment; unilateral environmental measures and trade sanctions; shipping of hazardous waste; CITES....); international environmental torts and human rights; and environmental issues in transnational contracts, mergers and acquisitions.

International Intellectual Property Law Law 336

This course surveys the variety of treaties and laws governing worldwide intellectual property rights. In addition to the major multi-lateral treaties governing intellectual property rights protection, the course will compare various relevant national laws to see how different social and economic policy goals drive differences in laws governing copyrights, patents, trademarks, and related rights. International intellectual property laws have become increasingly important to companies with a global business footprint. Therefore, the course will explore business strategies in the context of this network of laws. Students will be evaluated primarily based on a final exam; there will also be a participation component.

International Taxation Law 483

This course is an introduction to the United States income tax treatment of income derived from foreign sources by U.S. persons, including legal entities, and income derived from U.S. sources by foreign persons. Topics covered will include the tax classification of persons as U.S. or foreign, the different treatment of different types of income (for example, investment versus business income), certain "inbound" and "outbound" transactions involving U.S. and foreign corporations, U.S. withholding taxes on income of foreign persons, the deferral of U.S. tax on foreign-source income of foreign corporations controlled by U.S. persons, the U.S. tax credit for foreign income taxes of U.S. persons, and the impact of tax treaties. Prerequisite: Law 311 Federal Income Taxation

International Trade Law Law 497

This covers the regulation of international trade at the international level by organizations such as the World Trade Organization, at the regional level by such arrangements as the North American Free Trade Agreement, and at the national level by the U.S. and its principal trading partners through various U.S. trading institutions. Topics include the constitutional allocation of authority over international trade in the U.S., customs law, non- tariff barriers, import relief measures and other trade remedies, government procurement, trade in services, regional economic integrations, and the need to examine trade issues in relation to the new trade agenda, namely labor and environmental issues and the protection of intellectual property rights.

Internet Law-CLCT Summer Law 470T

The emergence of the internet and digital technologies that enhance our abilities to access, store, manipulate, and transmit vast amounts of information has generated a host of new legal issues for which lawyers of the 21st century must be prepared. Although many are trying to apply existing legal concepts onto problems arising in cyberspace, it is increasingly evident that this strategy is not always effective. The course will explore specific problems in applying law to cyberspace in areas such as intellectual property, freedom of speech, privacy, content control, and the bounds of jurisdiction. Familiarity with the internet and intellectual property law is helpful but not required.

Internet Law Law 470

The emergence of the internet and digital technologies that enhance our abilities to access, store, manipulate, and transmit vast amounts of information has generated a host of new legal issues for which lawyers of the 21st century must be prepared. Although many are trying to apply existing legal concepts onto problems arising in cyberspace, it is increasingly evident that this strategy is not always effective. The course will explore specific problems in applying law to cyberspace in areas such as intellectual property, freedom of speech, privacy, content control, and the bounds of jurisdiction. Familiarity with the internet and intellectual property law is helpful but not required.

Introduction to Islamic Law Law 355

This course introduces the basic sources for Islamic jurisprudence and describes the role of Islamic law in today's diverse and rapidly changing world.

Introduction to US Law & Legal System Law 250

This course is designed to provide an introduction into the structure and content of the American Legal System to foreign students who have not received American law training. The course is composed of two components: 1) instruction in American Law and Legal Institutions and 2) Legal Research Training. The substantive element contains materials on the Basic Principles of American Law, the Legal Profession, the Jury System, Constitutional Law and Torts. The research portion provides a basic introduction into the modern American law library's holdings and computer-based research techniques. The course meets for a total of 15 class meetings for at least 90 minutes at each session and will be graded on a pass/fail basis.

Islamic Law Seminar1 Law 604

This course will examine the historic roots of Islam and its significance as law and religion before surveying several representative systems of Islamic law. Satisfies the Writing Requirement.

Judicial Externship Law 754

Students earn academic credit by externing for judges (including administrative law judges), hearing officers, courts, and organizations that provide research, educational, and management services to judges and courts (e.g., the National Center for State Courts, the Federal Judicial Center, the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts). See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

Judicial Review and Constitutional Litigation in Europe Law M22

The implantation of constitutional courts has been the most striking development in European constitutional law since 1945. In this course we study this interesting “non- strictly judicial” alternative to American judicial review. We will analyze how it has grown quickly throughout Europe, is progressing in Latin America, and has been adopted around the world by the majority of countries writing new constitutions. We will use court cases from constitutional courts of different countries and other reading materials on comparative law to explore the main features of this form of specialized constitutional jurisdiction.

LLM English Language Course Law 251

This course is designed to improve the English language skills of entering international students in the LLM program or at the University.

Labor Law Law 407

A study of employee-union-management relations as regulated by the National Labor Relations Act, as amended. Issues considered include the organizational process, representation elections, collective bargaining and picketing activities.

Land Use Control Law 425

An analysis of the legal principles governing the use and management of land and the fundamental values underlying those principles. While focusing primarily on government regulation of land use, the course also will examine common law rules which affect the way that land is used. Topics that might be considered include judicial control of land use, zoning and the rights of landowners, zoning and the rights of neighbors, land use planning, public regulation of land development, aesthetic regulation, and the preservation of natural and historic resources.

Law & Entrepreneurship Seminar Law 675

The intersection of law and entrepreneurship is an emerging field of study. This course explores the legal and economic issues faced by highly innovative start-up companies, their entrepreneurs, financiers (angel investors and venture capitalists), and lawyers. The course is loosely structured around the life cycle of a start-up company - from inception to financing to governance and finally exit - with the primary focus on entrepreneurial finance. Classroom sessions are a mix that may include lecture, outside speakers, and presentations by the students. Grading is based on a presentation, final paper, and classroom participation.

Law & Literature Law 444

Law & Literature meets on Tuesdays from 6:00 -8:30 pm, four times during the semester, usually in a faculty member's home. Students will read and write papers on four books: A Tale of Two Cities (Dickins), The Secret Agent (Conrad), Death Comes for the Archbishop (Cather), and The Ox-Box Incident (Van Tilburg Clark). By 5:00 pm on the Thursday prior to each meeting students must submit a 4-5 page responding to between one and three of the ten or so questions prepared by the faculty.Students must write papers for all four books and attend all four sessions, unless your absence is excused in advance. Everyone should bring food and/or beverages to the class sessions, which are January 19, February 9, March 15, and April 5.

Law & Neuroscience Law 317

This course examines a variety of cutting-edge, at times controversial, linkages between law and neuroscience, ranging from social and environmental influences on the brain and behavior to the interpretations of neuroimaging and the prediction of criminality and predispositions towards mental illnesses and addictions. Students will learn how discoveries in neuroscience intersect with societal responses and legal decision-making. Scientists are increasingly using new techniques to investigate the brain activity underlying cognitive phenomena. The course will explore whether, and if so how, the law should engage with various emerging neuroscientific findings, technologies, and perspectives on such topics as evidentiary rules, memory bias and enhancement, lie and deception detection, the neurobiology of criminal culpability and punishment, emotions and decision making, addiction, adolescent brains and juvenile law, moral and legal reasoning, tort law, artificial intelligence, and the like. The course will also address a variety of challenging questions raised by the increasing introduction of brain scans as evidence in courtroom proceedings. A background in science may be helpful, but is not required, as the course will provide a 'brain basics' introduction for law students.

Law & Politics Law 707

Law & Politics is a series of presentations by leading academics, practitioners, and government officials about a range of issues related to the intersection of law and politics. Students are required to attend at least seven presentations over the course of the semester. At present, there are eight scheduled presentations (seven on Thursday afternoons and one on Monday, April 1). Some presentations require students to read papers and write short 3-page pass/fail response memos (4 over the course of the semester); other presentations have no formal paper component (there will be background reading for some but not all of these sessions). The schedule for spring 2013 speakers are January 24 Stanley Fish (Florida International and New York Times Opinionator columnist; formerly at Yale, Columbia, Duke); February 7 David Cole (Georgetown Law; columnist for Nation and New York Review of book; Supreme Court advocate); February 14 Walter Dellinger (O'Melveny & Myers; former Duke law professor, former head of Office of Legal Counsel and Acting Solicitor General; Supreme Court advocate); February 21 Heather Gerken (Yale Law School); March 21, Michael Toner (Wiley, Rein; former chair Federal Election Commission); Monday April 1 Mike Klarman (Harvard Law); April 4 Rob McDowell (Commissioner, Federal Communications Commission); April 18 John Green (University of Akron Political Science).

Law & Psychology Law 353

Many issues of law involve questions that are psychological in nature, referring to human behaviors and/or mental processes. For example, how do juries reach decisions? What do we know about memory, and to what extent can it be trusted in making legal judgments about guilt or liability? When is a confession voluntary; does the law think about voluntariness in a way that makes psychological sense? When is a criminal defendant mentally competent to stand trial? When may a criminal defendant be considered insane? What types of psychological defenses (defenses grounded upon mental illness) should a defendant be able to claim? When may a person be involuntarily incarcerated when (s)he has not committed a crime? What is the proper role of expert testimony? To what extent are the innovations of modern brain science, including technologies such as structural and functional MRI, relevant to judgments about legal responsibility? And so forth. Psychology and law have adopted overlapping, but also significantly contrasting perspectives on such issues. In this course we will investigate how psychologists work within the legal system and how psychological theories, research data, techniques, and methods might contribute to our understanding of the law. This is a three credit course which will meet twice weekly. Major components of the course grade will be a final exam, a class presentation by each student, and class attendance and participation.

Law & Sexual Violence Seminar Law 642

This seminar examines the criminal law's response to sexual violence in three major contexts: rape and sexual assault generally; sexual violence in the family; and sexual attacks on children. In each of these legal contexts we will read, discuss, and analyze various theoretical approaches to the issues, emphasizing the contributions made by feminist theory to criticism and reform in the law governing sexual violence. We will then apply the theoretical literature to actual case law and doctrine in both the civilian and the military contexts. One goal will be to answer core questions about the nature of sexual violence and the possible solutions to it. For example, can we coherently speak of sexual violence as one thing, as one social problem/pathology which is best analyzed using a single theoretical approach (and if so, which theoretical approach would be best?). Or does sexual violence have such different causes, and produce such differing effects across the legal spectrum, that we should view it as several quite distinct problems which are best analyzed from a context-drive, as opposed to universal point of view (and if so, what context(s) matter and what approaches would best be applied in each relevant context?). This will be a two-credit seminar which will meet once weekly. Major components of the course grade will be preparation, attendance, class participation, and a class presentation by each student. The course materials will be distributed via coursepak and Blackboard, and will be drawn from cases, statutes, empirical and theoretical literature in psychology, and legal theory.

Law & Social Justice Seminar1 Law 501

This seminar will discuss whether and to what extent our legal system, including its law schools, perpetuates or counteracts social injustice. Many of the readings derive from modern critical legal theory, particularly critical race theory and radical feminism, and from liberal and non-liberal responses thereto. These readings primarily address the subordination of particular groups in our society and ways in which taken-for-granted legal categories--such as objective/subjective, public/private, and negative rights/postive rights--serve to entrench hierarchies of power and wealth. Other readings include foundational political theories (e.g., Mill, Rawls, Nozick) and classic texts on topics such as civil disobedience and justified revolution. Discussions will mostly be student-directed.

Law of the Sea Seminar Law 519

The course explores major legal issues related to protection of critical aquatic environmental systems, from deep oceans beyond areas of national jurisdiction to US coastal land and waters. Students will become familiar with the laws and policies relating to water quality and habitat protection, territorial determinations of ocean zones, fisheries and marine wildlife preservation, ocean energy and mineral resources, pollution of coastal and ocean waters, and management of the coastal zone. Study will include international conventions and agreements such as the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). The grade will be based upon a final paper.

Laws of War Law 514

This mini-course will introduce students to the legal norms that govern when and how states may use force in international relations. We will begin by reviewing the historical development of the law of armed conflict from antiquity to the close of World War II. With this foundation in place, our attention will turn to the international treaties and customs that currently regulate states' recourse to force (jus ad bellum) and the means and methods of armed conflict (jus in bello), as well as the domestic constitutional provisions and statutes that inform U.S. military action. Using case studies from Afghanistan, Chechnya, Iraq, Libya, Nicaragua, Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam, Yemen, and the former Yugoslavia, the class will consider specific topics such as the legality of preemptive military action, counter-terrorist drone strikes, and humanitarian intervention.

Legal Drafting for a Transactional Practice Seminar Law 647

This seminar provides students an opportunity to draft agreements often used in representing business entities in a transactional legal practice. Students will analyze hypothetical and actual case studies to explore basic concepts of drafting in a business situation from a practical viewpoint. The class will examine how law, language and business factors interact in drafting. Assignments may include: 1) Partnership Agreements and Operating Agreements for Limited Liability Companies, 2) Certificates of Incorporation and Corporate Resolutions, 3) Executive Employment Agreements, 4) Term sheets and Letters of Intent, 5) Asset Acquisition Agreements, 6) Share Acquisition Agreements, 7) Licensing Agreements.

Legal Issues in Education Law 360

An advanced course on school law designed to explore legal issues of interest to graduate students. After satisfactory completion of this course, students should be capable of 1) identifying and analyzing significant legal issues in education; 2) translating statutes, governmental regulations, and court decisions into educational policy and administrative procedures; 3) expanding their knowledge of legal issues in education through continued refinement of their skills in legal research, interpretation of statutes, and legal analyses; and 4) understanding the nuances of legal reasoning. This is a School of Ed course crosslisted with law and the course materials will be found in Blackboard.

Legal Practice I Law 111

In Legal Practice, students will learn legal analysis, writing, research, and other practical skills. Students will work with full-time writing faculty and research librarians to research and write objective office memoranda and a letter to a client. Students will also work with practicing attorneys to learn skills necessary in client interviewing, counseling, negotiation, and oral presentations.

Legal Practice II Law 112

This is the second semester of Legal Practice for 1L students. The course continues instruction of legal analysis, writing, and research. Additionally, students continue working with practicing attorneys and refining the skills necessary in client interviewing, counseling, negotiation, and oral presentations.

Legal Protection of Human Rights in the EU Law 338

Human rights, democracy and the rule of law are core values of the European Union. Embedded in its founding treaty, they were reinforced when the EU adopted the Charter of Fundamental Rights in 2000, and strengthened still further when the Charter became legally binding with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. In this course, after a brief introduction of European integration, the course provides a general approach of the framework and functioning of the legal system of the European Union, introducing a general study on the decision-making process, the distribution of power between member states and the EU, and the principles that govern the relationship between the legal systems of the EU and its member states. Then the course will focus its attention on the human rights policy developed by the EU in the last years. We will study this main policy looking at the European Court of Justice leading cases on this subject and at the same time we will cover the main case law of the European Court of Human Rights reviewing EU Law and the interaction between both European Courts of Justice.

Legal System of the European Union (Madrid Study Abroad) Law M04

After a brief introduction on the motives and history of European integration, the course provides an accurate portrait of the general framework and functioning of the legal system of the European Union, with special emphasis on the decision-making process, the distribution of power between member states and the EU,and the principles that govern the relationship between the legal systems of the EU and its member states. Additional study will follow in the legal setting of the European Common Market. Attention will be paid to the economic liberties guaranteed by the Treaty of Rome, as well as the other rights and duties shaping the legal environment of any corporation conducting business in Europe. (Students may enroll in M04 or M05, but not both.

Legal Writing for LLMs I Law 701

This course is designed for graduate law students whose native language is not English. The course will provide essential grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and essay writing skills necessary for legal memoranda, law school and bar examination essay questions and basic written legal communication.

Legal Writing for LLMs II Law 702

This course is designed for graduate law students whose native language is not English. The course will provide essential grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and essay writing skills necessary for legal memoranda, law school and bar examination essay questions and basic written legal communication.

Legislation and Statutory Interpretation Law 412

Much of the law school curriculum, especially in the first year, focuses on judge-made common law. But for many lawyers today, reading and interpreting statutes is more important. This course will provide you with an overview of the legislative process, which is the source of those statutes. It will consider the distinctive features of statutory law as opposed to other forms of law. Most importantly, the course will introduce you to various approaches to interpreting statutes and teach you the rules and doctrines of statutory interpretation used in federal and state courts – material with great practical value as well as theoretical interest. The course will also give some attention to the role of administrative agencies as implementers and interpreters of statutes. Grades will be based primarily on a final examination. Students who are taking or have previously taken Statutory Interpretation are not eligible to enroll.

Local Government Law Law 429

This course examines the scope and nature of local government powers and their relationship to state and federal governmental authority. Particular emphasis is placed upon matters of concern to cities, counties and other units of local government. Special consideration will be given to questions of governmental design, political theory, and intra- and inter-governmental sharing of power. Specific topics may include: theories of authority, boundary changes, personnel, public contracts, government tort liability and immunity, municipal finance, land planning and development management. Course readings will include both legal materials and excerpts from the fields of public administration, economics, municipal finance and city planning.

Mediation Advocacy Law 725

This course will meet once weekly for a period of two and a half hours. It is open to all 2L and 3L students. Students who have previously taken the General Mediation course will be well prepared for Mediation Advocacy but other students are permitted to enroll in it. The focus of this class is on the advocate's role in mediation rather than that of the mediator. Mediation is a central part of many legal practices. Individual and corporate clients often seek lawyers who have strong problem-solving skills and who can use mediation to settle cases in a timelier and economically efficient manner than a protracted trial process. Courts often mandate mediation before allowing cases to go to trial. Therefore, lawyers need to understand the intricacies of the mediation process, both from the perspective of the mediator and that of the advocate. This course covers mediation theory and teaches practical skills to allow students to effectively negotiate and represent clients in mediated cases. The following topics will be covered: Introduction to mediation processes, distinguishing mediation from direct negotiation, assessing client needs and interests, understanding the lawyer's role in mediation/facilitated decision-making, preparing a mediator engagement letter, opening statements, persuasion, confidential information, private caucus methods, risk assessment, problem solving, emotional and psychological issues in mediation, and apology. The course will be a graded, three credit course. Student evaluation will be based on the following factors: Class participation - 25% Class presentation - 25% Written assignment - 50%

Mediation Law 722

This course is designed for students who are interested in how to effectively incorporate mediation theory into practice. Different models and approaches to mediation will be discussed and students will learn a broad range of skills and techniques through lectures, discussions, video simulations, exercises and role-plays. The process of mediation including convening and preparing for mediation, opening the mediation session, defining the issues, facilitating communication and creative problem-solving, and structuring a mediation will be covered. Skills that are valuable for mediators and advocates such as developing trust and rapport, active listening, formulating questions, gathering information, reframing, and effective interaction for facilitated decision making will be covered. In addition, we will examine legal, ethical and policy issues that arise in the mediation context. This is a 3 credit, graded course.

Medical Malpractice & Health Care Liability Law 472

This class will examine the unique area of tort law that is commonly litigated in the U.S. The initial weeks of the course will cover the essential elements of a medical malpractice claim giving special attention to the specific statutes governing this kind of lawsuit illustrating the impact of these laws on the litigation of medical malpractice cases. Students will then be asked to apply trial advocacy skills to a hypothetical medical malpractice case. Using a fact pattern from a wrongful death action recently tried in Virginia, students will plan and participate in a range of discovery, pretrial and trial exercises. The trial advocacy activities will include undertaking pre-trial discovery, witness preparation, juror selection, and closing arguments. The class will have the students engaging in all aspects of taking a medical malpractice claim from the filing stage to the jury verdict.

Mergers & Acquisitions Law 464

A survey of various forms of business combination transactions, including mergers, share exchanges, tender offers and asset purchases. This course will focus on planning for and structuring such transactions to address business, corporate law and securities law issues from the standpoints of both the acquiring company and the target company.

Military Law Seminar1 Law 503

This seminar is an intensive and critical examination of criminal law and procedure - and related matters such as administrative proceedings - in the armed forces of the United States. Topics will include sources of military criminal law, the application of the Bill of Rights to members of the armed forces, the draft, jurisdiction, alternatives to prosecution, prosecutorial control by the convening authority, the nature of the military "jury," substantive offenses, judicial independence, and the appellate process. Where possible, a comparative approach will be used. The 2013-2014 changes to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and Manual for Courts-Martial will be addressed. A graded paper is required; there is no examination. The final course grade will be based on the paper and class participation. If available, the text will be Fredric I. Lederer, MILITARY LAW, CASES AND MATERIALS (2015) which will be supplied. Francis A. Gilligan & Fredric I. Lederer, COURT-MARTIAL PROCEDURE (4th ed. 2014) will be made available. Note that this course does not address military commissions or the law of war. This course satisfies the writing requirement.

National Security Law Law 475

The National Security Law course will focus on the prosecution of national security offenses (e.g., terrorism, espionage and piracy) and the unique issues that arise during the litigation of such cases. In addition to examining the substantive statutes for the offenses, the course will address jurisdictional and venue provisions and the acquisition of evidence both domestically and overseas for these prosecutions. In doing so, the application of Miranda, the Confrontation Clause and other constitutional rights in the national security context will be examined. Particular emphasis will be given to the handling of classified information and its use pursuant to the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA). Finally, the course will explore the ability of the Article III courts to handle national security prosecutions in contrast to military tribunals. Grades will be based on a final examination, graded by anonymous number (although class participation will also be considered).

Natural Resources Law Law 339

The course provides an introduction to federal natural resources law, with an emphasis on living resources. We will examine the theoretical conflicts that underlie various approaches to resource management, as well as the special qualities of natural resource problems that render management efforts difficult. Focusing on the legal treatment of fisheries and marine mammals, wildlife and biodiversity, water resources, forests and preserved public lands, we will probe the complex interplay between environmental, economic, cultural, and political factors in natural resource decision making. Note: this class does not meet every year.

Negotiation for Lawyers Law 724

This course will explore the theoretical and strategic fundamentals of negotiating in a variety of legal situations. The course will be taught in a once-weekly, 2 1/2 hour format and will focus heavily on class exercises and simulations by students working in teams of two, three, or four. The course will cover various issues central to the topic, including the stages of negotiation; psychology of negotiation and related issues such as verbal and non-verbal communication and power and control in the bargaining process; the principal-agent relationship; substantive and strategic differences between unilateral and multilateral negotiations; and the law of settlement. The course grade will be based on (1) student participation in class discussions and exercises; (2) student performance in simulated negotiations; and (3) a final exam which will draw heavily on weekly class discussions of the assigned class materials.

Non-Profit Law Practice Law 473

Nonprofit organizations are an influential and significant sector in America. They range from small volunteer organizations to large corporations. This course will concentrate on understanding the unique tax and legal concepts applicable to non-profit organizations as well as the practical procedures utilized in forming a nonprofit, operating and governing a successful nonprofit, dealing with nonprofit tax, business and fundraising issues, understanding the state and federal regulation of nonprofits and, finally, effectuating the merger or dissolution of a nonprofit organization. The principal objective on this course is to introduce the law student to the world of nonprofit law so that as a lawyer, he or she can be prepared for an active role in establishing, advising, serving on the board or even working as in-house counsel for a nonprofit organization. Classes will be a combination of lectures, discussions, preparation of documents, group problem solving, and evaluation of solutions to actual practice queries. Grading criteria for the course will include participation, assignment and project/memo preparation, and a final examination. Regular attendance is required.

Non-Profit Organization Externship Law 749

Students earn academic credit by externing for civil legal services/legal aid organizations and private, nonprofit, 501(c) (3) organizations. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring Pass/Fail

Partnership Taxation Law 326

This course is an introduction to the federal income tax treatment of partnerships, including LLCs treated as partnerships, and their owners. Topics covered will include the tax classification of business entities as partnerships, partnership formations, allocations of partnership income and losses to partners, transfers of ownership interests by partners, distributions from partnerships to partners, terminations of partnerships, and a comparison of "S corporations" to partnerships. Prerequisite: Law 311 Federal Income Taxation Recommended: Law 320 Business Associations

Patent Law Law 447

The course will present the essential principles of the patent law, as well as significant policy considerations which are the basis for many patent doctrines. Highlighted will be decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

Patent Litigation Seminar2 Law 544

This seminar considers procedural and substantive issues surrounding patent litigation and administrative remedies that are available for patent disputes. Topics will include a broad range of issues relevant to the subject that may include jurisdictional matters, cease & desist letters, pleadings, motions, discovery, jury trial, remedies and appeals. The exact selection of seminar topics will be identified on the seminar syllabus. Prior successful completion of Intellectual Property Survey or Patent Law is strongly preferred. Civil Procedure is a prerequisite. This seminar is not intended to provide the basic coverage of Patent Law but rather it is intended to build upon the fundamental knowledge of that subject. For two credits, the students, in consultation with the professor, will prepare a footnoted or end noted research paper between 20 and 25 pages in length. For an additional credit, the minimum page requirement is 35 pages.

Philosophy of Law2 Law 450

A survey of problems generated by philosophical reflection on the law. The central topic will be the fundamental nature of the law. Is the law reducible to social facts? To morality? To neither of these things? But other topics will also be dealt with, including: the structure of legal systems, the nature and possibility of authority, whether there is a moral duty to obey the law, the status of international law, the lawmaking role of courts, and the effect of semantic and moral theories on adjudication. Classics in the field - including John Austin, H.L.A. Hart, Hans Kelsen, Ronald Dworkin, Joseph Raz and the American Legal Realists - will be discussed, as will arguments by some more recent writers.

Planning a Chapter 11 Filing Law 737

This course will provide students with a practical exploration of corporate restructuring and the Chapter 11 process. The course will follow a role-playing, case-study format, in which students will learn about advising a company on restructuring options including preparing for a bankruptcy filing. Grading will be on a pass/fail basis, with assessment based on class participation and some very limited written work product by student teams during the role-playing exercises. Prior knowledge of bankruptcy law is not necessary. 1 credit pass/fail

Post-Conflict Justice and the Rule of Law1 Law 394

This course will cover two aspects of post-conflict justice: retributive and restorative justice with respect to human depredations that occur during violent conflicts and mechanisms for restoring and enhancing justice systems that have failed or become weakened as a result of such conflicts. Areas of study will include policy issues relating to accountability, mechanisms for assessing accountability, post-conflict peacekeeping and justice, and (re-)establishing the rule of law in post-conflict environments. A paper, which will satisfy the writing requirement, will be required.

Post-Election Litigation Law 377

This one credit course will meet on on two Saturdays at the William & Mary's DuPont Office in Washington, DC. The course will focus on the legal issues and consideration in post-election disputes. In general, such disputes take the form of either recounts of contests. The first describes the process of retabulating ballots cast in an election. The second describes challenges brought to the election process itself - including election administration, standards, claims of fraud, etc. Both recounts and contests can be handled administratively, judicially or legislatively (i.e., as part of the seating process). This course will touch on each of these processes and will focus on the related constitutional issues - including due process, equal protection, federalism, separation of powers and the political question doctrine. Some attention will also be paid to the strategies and tactics most often employed in such disputes. In addition to class participation, grades will be based on a short paper - 10-15 pages analyzing the legal concerns and strategies available under different existing state recount statutes.

Power, Influence & Responsible Leadership Law 716

This is a course about learning to use power and influence as effective tools for both understanding your surroundings and achieving your goals. It is a course about getting things done in the real world, where politics and personalities can often seem to hinder rather than help you. It is a course for those of you who want to make things happen, despite the obstacles that might stand in your way. Consequently, it is a course about you. Course Objectives: This course presents conceptual models, tactical approaches and self-assessment tools to help you understand political dynamics as they unfold around you and develop your influence style. By focusing on specific expressions of power and influence this course gives you the opportunity to observe their effective and ineffective uses in different contexts and stages of a person's career. The subject matter will introduce different ethical questions. This course should challenge you to define what will constitute the ethical exercise of power and influence in your life. In this course we will rely on a mix of case studies, exercises, self-assessment tools and readings. Your grade will be based 50% on class participation and 50% on the final paper.

Pre-trial, Depositions and Advanced Trial Strategy Law 796

The course will introduce pre-trial procedure and motion practice for Product Liability, Employment, Medical Malpractice, Criminal and Personal injury cases. In addition the class will outline and practice taking pre-trial depositions and, finally, work through trial strategy issues and ethical considerations for trial lawyers.

Presidential Power: Sources, Limits, and Constitutional Law 539

Integrity From 1789 to 1950, presidential power was largely confined to two sources of power: those expressly stated in the Constitution and powers necessarily implied in those grants. On rare occasions and when properly understood, presidents may exercise a "prerogative" (as with Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase and Lincoln during the early months of the Civil War). The period from World War II to contemporary times represents a dramatic increase in unilateral executive actions, placing at risk such basic principles as republican government, separation of powers, and the system of checks and balances. Prominent scholars created an idealized President devoted to keeping the nation safe, committed to the "national interest," and surrounded by expert and informed advisers. Those models of presidential power gave little attention to public law and constitutional limits. In the 1952 steel seizure case, President Truman claimed an "inherent" power that could not be checked by other branches. He and other Presidents, including Nixon and Bush II, were defeated either in court or in Congress, and sometimes both, when asserting inherent power over warrantless domestic surveillance, impoundment of funds, and creating military tribunals. To broaden executive power, Presidents, legal advisers, and scholars identify other sources of power, including the "sole organ" doctrine, the "unitary executive," and various powers called "emergency," residual," "preclusive," and "completion." Those sources are vague in concept, often inaccurate in origin, and unreliable in fixing the constitutional boundaries of the President. Also examined in this course: the Vesting Clause, the herein-granted debate, ministerial versus discretionary duties, Presidents who seek war power not from Congress but from the UN and NATO, and the study by Irving Janis on "Groupthink." Other contributions to unchecked executive power: members of Congress who display less understanding of their separate institutional role and a number of judicial rulings that recognize plenary and independent presidential authority.

Presidential Public Financing Seminar Law 613

The presidential public financing system is in crisis. In 2008 President Obama became the first candidate since 1972 to turn down public funds for both the primary and general election and privately finance his entire campaign. In 2012 Governor Romney joined President Obama in turning down public funds for both the primary and general election and unprecedented amounts of money were raised for the campaign. Despite these developments, President Obama is on record as a strong supporter of the presidential public financing system and Senator John McCain (R-AZ) has supported the system in the past as well. Such political support will be critical if Congress seriously considers various proposals to overhaul the presidential public financing system in time for the 2016 presidential election. This course will analyze the presidential public financing system, the regulations and restrictions that apply to candidates who accept public funds, and court decisions that have addressed the constitutionality of the presidential public financing system and will debate whether there should be a presidential public financing system at all in the 21st century. The course will emphasize the unique blend of legal, constitutional, political, and public policy issues that influence contemporary debates about the future of the presidential public financing system.

Privacy Law Law 348

Should the NSA tap Americans' phone calls? Should Target be liable to consumers for data breaches? What if Snapchat doesn't really delete images but stores them--should users have recourse? Given modern technological realities, is privacy dead? This course will review the historical roots of the concept of privacy in U.S. law, the common clash between privacy and the public good, and the shifting balance of privacy rights in rapidly changing technological contexts. We will aim to understand privacy's place amidst the swirl of commercial and national security interests and the rise of the global Internet. Grades will be determined by class participation and a final exam.

Privacy in a Technological Age Seminar Law 661

New technologies are changing the ways information is gathered, used, shared and disseminated. This course will review the laws that have emerged in response to these developments and cases that have attempted to apply them. Particular emphasis will be given to (1) the historical roots of privacy law in the United States and elsewhere; (2) the balance between the individual's right to protect and control personal information and the corresponding duty placed on public and private entities possessing such information; and (3) the shifting balance of these rights and duties in rapidly changing technological contexts. The course will examine these issues in a variety of settings (in the workplace, court record rooms, doctors' offices, police databases, etc), and across legal disciplines (tort law, criminal law, constitutional law, etc.). Finally, the course will examine the shortcomings of legal solutions in protecting privacy and emerging technological alternatives some think are better. Grades will be determined by class participation and a final paper.

Private Equity & Venture Capital Law 325

Covers the essential principles of the risks and rewards associated with Private Equity and Venture Capital. Financial analysis of a business and risk/return characteristics, business valuation methods, and the financing sources are covered to better understand the required returns to risk investors. Other topics include: fund raising, early stage, middle stage and ultimately late stage investments; buyouts and exit strategies; the structuring of the 'deal'; the creation of term sheets, negotiation strategies, and human capital and resources. This is a non-law course cross listed with law. The course materials will be found in Blackboard.

Private Equity: Structure and Issues Law 352

This course will provide an overview of the common legal structures employed in the formation, capitalization, compensation, and governance of private equity funds. We will study as an example the structure of an existing private equity fund operating in the Canadian real asset space. This course will also explore a number of topical issues in private equity, including income treatment of general partner carried interest, transparency in relation to the determination and disclosure of fees and expenses, allocation and disclosure of co-investment opportunities, cross-border taxation of fund income, and securities regulatory oversight of private equity managers. In examining all of the foregoing, we will consider the extent to which legislators and public regulators should oversee and intervene in private contractual relationships.

Private Practice/In-House Counsel Externship Law 759

1-3 credits;Students earn academic credit by working for solo practitioners, law firms, and in-house law departments of corporations. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details.

Products Liability Law 451

A study of the product-related injuries to person and property. The major concentration will be on liability for injuries caused by defective and dangerous products, with additional consideration of product safety legislation.

Professional Responsibility-CLCT Summer Law 115T

This course will cover a variety of topics relating to lawyers' obligations as members of the legal profession, such as the duty of competence, fees and billing, creating and ending the lawyer-client relationship, the duty of confidentiality, and conflicts of interest. The class will cover both lawyer regulations (such as the Model Rules of Professional Conduct) and other ethical concerns in the practice of law.

Professional Responsibility Law 115

This course will cover a variety of topics relating to lawyers' obligations as members of the legal profession, such as the duty of competence, fees and billing, creating and ending the lawyer-client relationship, the duty of confidentiality, and conflicts of interest. The class will cover both lawyer regulations (such as the Model Rules of Professional Conduct) and other ethical concerns in the practice of law.

Property Rights Seminar Law 549

This course will examine the constitutional protection afforded property and economic rights throughout American history. Among other topics, the course will cover colonial attitudes toward property ownership, the role of property rights in framing the Constitution, the early use of eminent domain, the growth of the contract clause, the impact of the Civil War, the evolution and application of due process, utility rate regulation, early land use controls, and changing interpretations of the takings clause of the Fifth Amendment. It will conclude with a look at the status of property rights in modern American society. Students will be expected to attend the Property Rights Conference on Friday, October 18, 2013. Grading in this course will be based on class participation and the preparation of a 10-page paper. The paper must be submitted no later than three weeks after the conclusion of the course.

Property Theory Seminar Law 674

This seminar will explore advanced topics in property law, including the meaning of property and property rights, the way property systems and structures work, and the origins, justification, and limits of property law. Course materials will consist of foundational legal, historical, and philosophical texts, as well as significant current scholarship. After several weeks of background reading, each session will be devoted to intensive study of a single law review article. For each article, one student will prepare a written critique and one student will be asked to defend the article in class against the critique. The course will stress skills of close reading, critical analysis, and persuasive argumentation. Thorough preparation and active participation each session are essential. Grading will be based upon a ten-page critique of a designated law review article, oral defense of a designated article, and class participation.

Property Law 108

Property focuses on the rules for acquiring, using, dividing (in various dimensions), and losing rights over scarce resources. Most material concerns realty, with limited consideration of person property. Property will introduce the rudiments of capture, finds, and adverse possession; landlord-tenant law; the system of estates; co-ownership; easements; and restrictive covenants. In addition to these private law subjects, the course will introduce zoning and takings.

Prosecutor Externship Law 770

Students earn academic credit by externing for prosecutors. Placements with U.S. Attorney offices are covered by the separate U.S. Attorney Externship. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

Public Defender Externship Law 771

Students earn academic credit by externing for public defenders. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

Public International Law (Madrid Study Abroad) Law M30

This course examines the nature and sources of international law and municipal law; the law of treaties; principles of jurisdiction; statehood and recognition of states and governments; sovereign immunity; rights of aliens; human rights; environmental issues; and regulation of international coercion.

Public International Law1 Law 409

This survey course introduces students to the basic subjects, processes, and problems of contemporary international law. The course begins with an exploration of the nature and sources of international law; the traditional role of states in international law formation; and the burgeoning role of international organizations and nongovernmental organizations in transnational legal processes. Attention then shifts to the relationship between international law and U.S. law, including the principles that govern (and impede) the application of international law in the United States. The course devotes sustained attention to several important subfields of international law, including principles of international jurisdiction, sovereign rights to natural resources, international human rights, international criminal law, and the laws of war. Along the way, class members are invited to grapple with several enduring critiques of the international legal system.

Public Policy for Science & Professions Law 347

Public policy analysis is vital for defining problems and evaluating alternative solutions that lead to new laws, regulations or government policies. This course prepares students to deal with an increasingly regulated business environment, rapidly changing regulations in environmental science, and the widening scope of the practice of law. Offered one evening per week throughout the semester, the course is team taught by an economics professor and a political science professor in an engaging seminar format using provocative materials with practical application. Topics include markets, political economy, market failure, equity and efficiency, government failure, regression analysis and surveys (including political option polling) and data collection for public policy analysis. Prior exposure to economics or statistics is helpful but not required, and college algebra is sufficient mathematical preparation for the course. Satisfactory completion of this course is a prerequisite for enrollment for graduate students outside Public Policy in subsequent Public Policy courses, whether or not they are cross listed outside of Public Policy. This is a non-law course crosslisted with Law and the course materials will be found in Blackboard.

Real Estate Tax Law 427

Problem oriented analysis of tax aspects of real estate investment from a life cycle perspective of acquisition, operation and disposition. Areas studied are: start-up costs; acquisition costs and capital vs. ordinary expenditures; treatment of interest and depreciation; anti-tax shelter limitations on tax losses; deferred payment (installment sale and basis recovery reporting) and non-recognition like-kind exchange and involuntary conversion techniques; character issues including treatment of real estate dealers. Many topics are most frequently litigated by IRS. This is the principal area of common law of taxation; tax policy and politics are also examined. Prerequisite or Corequisite: Law 311 Federal Income Tax

Real Estate Transactions Law 420

This course will deal with residential and commercial real estate transactions both from a practical and a theoretical perspective. The course will cover purchase and sale agreements, deeds, recording acts, financing, residential and commercial leases and real estate development. Class discussion will focus on both the analysis of case decisions and practical aspects of real estate law.

Regulation of Markets Law 328

This course provides a survey of how the state intervenes to address major market failures with emphasis on regulation of competition, natural monopolies, externalities, and imperfect information. We will examine the reasons why markets fail and the theoretical rationale behind government intervention to correct those failures. We will study the tools the state uses to regulate markets including price and rate regulation, command and control regulation, market-based mechanisms, and incentive regulation. We will also analyze the economic consequences of various forms of regulation. The course will include case studies of a variety of regulated industries including electricity and utilities, telecommunications, and transportation. This course should be taken by students who want to work in a regulatory agency, on a house or senate committee that deals with regulated industries, in a law firm that deals with regulatory matters, or in a regulated industry. COURSE OBJECTIVE: At the end of the course students should understand and be able to explain to others the economic rationale for government regulation of markets. Students should also be able to evaluate the likely consequences of a regulation given appropriate information about the regulated industry and the policy in question. Students will be familiar with key types of economic regulations and the ways the regulations work (or fail to work) to increase efficiency. Students will also have an increased understating of key regulated industries. METHOD OF EVALUATION: Students will take midterm and final examinations, each accounting for 30% of the final grade. Students will also develop an industry case study which they will present orally and in writing (12 to 15 page paper) that will account for the remaining 40% of the final grade. This is a non-law course cross listed with law. The course materials will be found in Blackboard.

Regulatory Law and Public Policy Law 603

From regulation intended to prevent another financial crisis, to environmental regulation designed to address climate change, to the regulation of health insurance, contemporary events highlight the importance of these questions: What are the principal regulatory options used in the United States in major sectors of the economy? What are the public-policy goals of these different regulatory regimes? Is each regulatory regime designed effectively to achieve its public policy goals? This seminar examines those questions from the standpoint of the law, regulatory theory and economic analysis. Major topics include the constitutional framework of regulation in the United States, how economic analysis informs legal and policy analysis, and a survey of major industry sectors in which we will analyze the regulatory structure of each, including public utilities, insurance and banking. The application of regulatory theory and economic analysis are key themes of the course. While an undergraduate economics degree is not a prerequisite, students should be willing to learn and apply basic economic principles in evaluating different regulatory options.

Remedies Law 413

This course involves a study of the law of judicial remedies, both legal and equitable, and focuses on the nature and scope of available relief. The course emphasizes the various remedies available, including compensatory and punitive damages, injunctions, declaratory judgments, restitution, and enforcement proceedings. It provides a brief study of the development of chancery courts and the continuing distinction between equitable and legal remedies. Special attention is given to the appropriateness of various remedies to given situations. Substantive examples will come primarily from contract and tort law, but property interests, statutory violations, and constitutional harms also will be discussed.

Sales Law 435

This course deals with commercial and consumer sales transactions governed by Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code. Coverage includes: contract formation and readjustment; general obligations of the buyer and seller; contract performance; risk of loss; warranties; breach, repudiation and excuse; remedies; and federal legislation affecting these issues.

Section 1983 Litigation Law 477

The course will focus on litigation under 42 U.S.C. § 1983—the statute most commonly used to protect Americans’ constitutional rights. Topics covered will include the history of the statute, the categories of defendants who can be sued under the statute, theories of liability, available remedies, defenses to suits, immunity from suit, and awards of attorneys’ fees. The course will also cover the relationship between substantive rights and the litigation tools provided by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The course will explore the major Supreme Court cases that define the principles of § 1983, and each week the class will discuss how the principles apply to actual cases that have arisen and been litigated in Virginia. Students will be graded based on a short paper (approximately five pages) prepared in the middle of the semester, and a longer brief in support of a motion for summary judgment based on facts provided to the students. Students will also be expected to work in teams to address specific legal issues and present their analysis in class.

Secured Transactions Law 404

A study of Article 9 of the Uniform Commerical Code governing security interests in personal property and fixtures.

Securities Regulation in Europe Law M13

The course will examine the European Financial Services Action Plan and how, for financial markets ans services, it has developed the general freedoms (freedom of establishment, freedom to provide services) established under European Law. The course will also review the common requirements imposed to harmonize business conduct rules on the stock markets (Directive on Market Abuse). Lastly, following the general trend towards corporate governance reform, the course will consider European developments in the area and the European response to the Sarbanes-Oxley requirements.

Securities Regulation Law 423

This course studies the disclosure philosophy of the federal securities laws and the nature and regulation of the securities markets. The relevant statutes are the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, primarily, as well as changes brought by recent legislation including the JOBS Act. Among the topics covered are the initial public offering (IPO) process and exemptions from registration under the 1933 Act; we also study the mandatory disclosure regime for public companies under the 1934 Act. Civil liabilities under both the 1933 and 1934 Acts are also explored. The course also studies the economics of the disclosure and liability rules and the workings of an efficient market. Prerequsite: Law 303 Corporations I or Law 320 Business Associations.

Sel Topics in Jurisprudence Seminar: Philosophical Anarchism Law 579

Is there a moral duty to obey the law? Is the moral authority that governments typically claim possible, or is submission to governmental authority irrational and contrary to one's autonomy as a moral agent? These and other questions concerning contemporary philosophical anarchism are the subject of this course. The course will discuss selected readings and will be graded, with a take-home examination. 1-credit, graded.

Selected Topics in Admiralty Law Seminar Law 611

Through in-depth study of admiralty jurisprudence and wrongful death and injury, the course examines the inner workings of maritime law and grapples with current uncertainties and challenges facing maritime lawyers. In addition, a survey of recent piracy and treasure salvage cases provides insight into the utility and limitations of criminal and admiralty jurisdiction over matters occuring on the high seas.

Selected Topics in American Legal History Seminar2 Law 547

This seminar will consider various topics regarding American Legal History. The nature of the topics will change from term to term.

Selected Topics in Bankruptcy Law Seminar Law 681

This seminar will examine the 2008-2009 financial crisis through the lens of bankruptcy law and policy, focusing on the auto bailouts and the new regulatory response to the problem of insolvent banks that are 'too big to fail.' Bankruptcy Law is a prerequisite. A paper will be required.

Selected Topics in Citizenship Law 668

This mini-course will examine the history of citizenship acquisition in the United States. The course will explore the relationship between cultural conceptions of "American" and legal access to U.S. citizenship. Students will be evaluated by an exam and class participation will be a factor in determining the final grade.

Selected Topics in Constitutional Law Seminar1 Law 505

This course will compare the ways countries and cultures approach and reify constitutional issues. Transnational constitutional norms and themes will be analyzed. Readings, discussions and presentations will focus on issues such as roles and functions of constitutions, economic and social protections, forms of government and balances of power, and consitutional protection of human rights. Constitutional processes in the modern era, including in post-conflict environments, will be examined.

Selected Topics in Criminal Justice Seminar2 Law 531

This seminar will consider various topics regarding criminal justice. The nature of the topics will change from term to term. See term for description.

Selected Topics in Criminal Law Seminar Law 522

This seminar examines topical issues of criminal law. The topics vary per term. Our examination will include reading, discussing, and analyzing various theoretical approaches to the issues and reforms that may have been made. Our discussions will include applying and evaluating the theoretical literature to actual case law and doctrine.

Selected Topics in Election Law Seminar Law 614

Electoral Reform-Developing Election Standards This course will provide students with the framework necessary to explore the current status and the development of electoral reform in a comparative setting of U.S. and international law. The course objective is two-fold; first, to foster a more thorough analysis of national and international election law, and second, to provoke student thought towards a better application of the underlying normative principles within the need for reform. Student participation is required.

Selected Topics in Environmental Law Seminar2 Law 510

This seminar will consider various topics regarding environmental law. The nature of the topics will change from term to term.

Selected Topics in European Internet Law Law 390

This course will consider various topics regarding European This course will consider various topics regarding European Internet Law. The nature of the topics will change from term to term.

Selected Topics in Higher Education Law Law 678

This mini-course will focus on select legal issues that arise in the context of postsecondary education, both public and private. Primary emphasis will be on unsettled issues with which law and policymakers grapple. Thus, among the topics we will consider are the legal and policy dimensions of education financing, including challenges faced by students of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds; immigrants' access to higher education; the existence of violence -- including but not limited to gender-motivated and sexual violence -- on campuses, and the limits on schools' ability to control and discipline student behavior; the due process rights of students; and regulatory challenges posed by nontraditional educational institutions as they negotiate with educators and the state with respect to access to, control over, and regulation of the education setting. Final grades are based on class participation (25%) and a 10-page final paper (75%).

Selected Topics in Immigration & Citizenship Seminar Law 669

In this mini-course, students will explore timely topics of immigration and citizenship. Students will be evaluated by an exam and class participation could be a factor in determining the final grade.

Selected Topics in Insurance Regulation Seminar1 Law 627

Since its inception, insurance has evolved from a purely private contractual arrangement to a highly regulated industry. This course will explore how legal and regulatory principles have changed to address this ever more complex industry. We will also explore the public policy underpinning the development of our complex insurance regulatory system. Specific topics covered will include the creation and growth of the regulatory process, the state versus federal debate over the regulation of insurance, the powers of state insurance commissioners (both legal and practical), and how the regulatory process imposes specific restrictions and requirements on certain areas of insurance and certain types of insurance products. We will also explore how public policy pressures are currently affecting insurance law and regulation (e.g., legal and legislative reactions to the insurance industry's handling of major catastrophes, such as hurricane Katrina, the attempts by both the states and the federal government to create residual markets to cover losses which the private market is unwilling to take on, and the effect of the current health care reform debate on the health insurance landscape). In addition to the writing requirement, students will have an opportunity to participate in a debate on the comparative benefits of state and federal regulation of insurance and to select a cutting-edge topic for class discussion.

Selected Topics in Juvenile Law Seminar Law 598

This seminar will consider various topics regarding juvenile law. The nature of the topics will change from term to term.

Selected Topics in Legal History Seminar Law 629

The Conduct of Trial in Colonial Virginia- Supposed you lived in early Virginia and you came before the colony's courts as a party in a civil action, or a criminal prosecution. If you were a litigant, who represented you, and how did the cause proceed from filing to judgment? In what court was your case heard? What avenues of appeal were open to you? If you were an accused felon what court tried you? What rights were yours from arrest to trial? How did you defend yourself? If you were found guilty, could you appeal your conviction? In what manner did colonial magistrates deal with petty criminal offenders? Answering these questions invites explorations of colonial judicial proceedings with an eye toward discerning differences between how courts worked in Colonial Virginia in the 17th and 18th centuries in comparison to their operation in modern times. An understanding of how things worked also requires a grasp of the early courts, their jurisdictions, their staffing, where they met, and how they changed from the 1620s to the 1770s. Hence, this mini-course offers students an opportunity not only to learn about colonial era courts and trials but also to appreciate how these practices influenced the development of modern judicial processes. The class will consist of lectures and discussions. In lieu of an examination, students must submit a short paper on a topic developed in conjunction with the instructor that is drawn from the materials covered in the course. More information on the course and on the paper will be provided as part of the syllabus, which will be posted online. Final grades will be calculated on the basis of seventy per cent for the paper and thirty per cent for in-class discussion.

Selected Topics in Race & American Legal History Seminar Law 628

Seminar topics will vary from term to term but will focus on race as it relates to American legal history.

Selected Topics in Securities Regulation Seminar1 Law 536

This seminar explores the primary mechanisms of enforcement of the federal securities laws: criminal prosecution, civil enforcement proceedings by the Securities and Exchange Commission, class actions by private litigants, and arbitration of broker/customer disputes. The seminar will focus on typical remedies (imprisonment, injunctions, occupational bars, restitution, fines and civil penalties) rather than the substance of the securities laws. Completion of Securities Regulation is not required but may be helpful in understanding some of the materials. Satisfies the writing requirement.

Selected Topics in Special Education Law Seminar Law 649

This one week mini-course features national and regional experts teaching the following topics: special education case law, legislation, and regulations; utilizing evaluations, tests and measurements in determining eligibility in special education, and in the preparation of Individualized Education Programs and Section 504 Plans; issues of juvenile justice, behavior and discipline for students with disabilities; strategies for negotiating with schools and working with parents; dispute resolution procedures in special education; preparing legal claims and remedies on behalf of students with disabilities who are denied an appropriate education; and creating systemic change in the system. Students will attend more than 25 hours of instruction with fellow attorneys, law students, and experienced advocates interested in learning how to represent children and families in special education. Preparation for and participation in all sessions is required, as well as a paper of no less than ten double-spaced pages on a mutually agreeable topic. This is a two-credit graded course. Further scheduling details can be found on the PELE Clinic website.

Selected Topics in Sports Law Seminar Law 663

This seminar will consider various topics regarding sports law. The nature of the topics will change from term to term

Small Business Planning Law 446

The students will explore alternative solutions to planning issues encountered by small businesses, including formation, compensation to labor and capital and retirements. The course emphasizes income tax planning but requires the synthesis of state partnership and corporate law, and other non-tax rules with tax planning. Prerequisite: Law 311 Federal Income Taxation. Suggested but not required: Law 303 Corporations or Law 320 Business Associations.

Spanish for Lawyers Law 711

This is a one-credit course that will give students an opportunity to use Spanish language skills in a legal context. This class will begin with a grammar review and an introduction to basic legal vocabulary in Spanish. Each class will then concentrate on one substantive area (i.e., Family Law, Immigration Law, Criminal Law and Business/Employment Law). Students will learn and be able to use in an oral and written context vocabulary related to each area. Oral exercises including discussion and role play will help students to further develop listening and speaking skills. Literature and films appropriate to the topics will be used to stimulate discussion related to the legal issues involved and the realities of Spanish speaking citizens in the U.S. The course will meet once a week for 50 minutes. Materials will include THE ABA LEGAL SPANISH PHRASEBOOK, AL TANTO: CATORCE CUENTOS CONTEMPORANEOS, CINEMA FOR SPANISH CONVERSATION, and various legal documents in the target language. This will be a pass/fail course. Students will be evaluated through vocabulary quizzes, performance on oral role playing exercises, and a final group project or written/oral examination TBD. Students should have intermediate or advanced proficiency in spoken and written Spanish.

Special Education Advocacy Clinic I (PELE) Law 782

This clinic offers eight students the opportunity to assist children with special needs and their families in special education matters. This may include assistance in eligibility meetings, Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings, discipline matters, mediation, administrative hearings, complaint drafting, and court proceedings. Clinic skills include interviewing, counseling, problem solving, informal and formal written and oral advocacy, negotiation, mediation, development of case theory and strategy, and file management. Students will identify obstacles, defuse emotions, and clarify legal issues. They will learn how to put a case together for a successful outcome, while managing client expectations and meeting client goals. In this clinic, the students will also teach parents effective advocacy and negotiation skills through public presentations and preparation of materials. Students will be graded on the quality of their work in educating families, representing clients and handling multiple cases, their ability to work collaboratively with other students in the clinic and those from other disciplines, and their written work associated with client representation. Students will be required to attend class sessions, work on clinic cases, present case rounds, attend regular case meetings with the Professor, and assist clinic operations when requested. Students are expected to average 8-10 hours each week working on clinic cases and assisting with clinic operations. This clinic will be taught by Professor Crystal Shin, and the seminar and case rounds will be held on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 10:00-11:15 am. Graded course.

Special Education Advocacy Clinic II Law 790

Advanced clinical experience in special education advocacy, allowing up to four students selected by the Professor who have successfully completed PELE Special Education Advocacy Clinic I to further refine their own advocacy skills through increased autonomy in representation of clients in more complicated legal matters, and to build their leadership, supervision and collaborative skills by mentoring a team of PELE Clinic I students. Students will be graded on the quality of their work in educating families, representing clients and handling multiple cases, their ability to work collaboratively with students in the clinic and those from other disciplines, and their written work associated with client representation. In addition, PELE II students will be required to mentor PELE I students in these skills and meet weekly with Professor Shin regarding the progress of their cases. Interested students should email a one-paragraph statement of interest to Professor Shin. Graded, 3 credit course. Weekly meeting times TBD.

Sports Law Practicum Law 739

The Sports Law Practicum will provide students with opportunities to prepare for and conduct simulations that occur in the field of amateur sports law. In one simulation, the students will moot an entire USOC-style doping arbitration that will include a live oral argument in front of a 3-judge panel of experts that practice in the doping field. In preparation for the hearing, students will be exposed to the World Anti-Doping Code and the developing body of international doping law. The students will draft briefs, prepare witnesses, and conduct the arbitration. Another simulation will involve exposure to the world of NCAA infractions. The students will learn about the intricacies of the NCAA enforcement and infractions process -- standards of review, NCAA precedent and rules -- before participating in a simulated infractions appeal. Professionals who practice in the NCAA legal field will provide guidance to the students. Other simulations (e.g. Olympics team selection disputes) may be conducted if time permits. 3 credits, pass/fail. Limited to 8 students.

State & Local Government Externship Law 753

Students earn academic credit by externing for state or local government agencies and offices, such as city/county attorneys or attorney generals (other than the Virginia Attorney General, which is covered by the separate Virginia Attorney General Externship). Placements with prosecutors and public defenders are covered by their respective externships. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

State & Local Taxation Law 322

The State and Local Taxation course considers taxation imposed by states and local governments in a variety of contexts including the taxing of income, sales and use, property, and business licenses. This course will benefit students entering either a tax practice or a general business practice. Topics to be covered in the course will include: the key elements of the major business taxes and individual state income tax; the constitutional restrictions applicable to the taxation of interstate businesses; the handling of audits; and the conduct of administrative and judicial appeals. The course will use Virginia's tax system as an illustrative model for issues that are common to most jurisdictions. Students will be evaluated on the basis of their class participation and on a series of written assignments including administrative protests of hypothetical audit assessments and initial court pleadings.

Statutory Interpretation Seminar Law 638

This seminar is a scholarly exploration of the modern debate about how courts should (and do) interpret statutes. The course is not designed to be a comprehensive survey of thinking about statutory interpretation. Rather, the course is designed to introduce you to, and encourage you to think critically about, several of the major theories and themes that inform the modern debate (the virtues and vices of, for example, textualism, purposivism, legislative history, and the public choice theory of legislation). It is also designed to give each student an opportunity to sharpen his or her skills of critical analysis by writing critiques (and also defending) articles addressing issues of statutory construction. Grades will be based on the short written critiques (less than 10 pages a piece) and classroom participation.

Supreme Court Seminar Law 619

This course will look at the Court's most recent term (including same sex marriage and the Affordable Care Act), the current term, and consider the relationship of the Court to Congress, the President, and state officials; this course will also provide students with an opportunity to meet leading judges (most likely including a Supreme Court Justice, 2 federal court of appeals judges, and perhaps a state supreme court justice), Supreme Court advocates, and commentators. We will meet most but not all weeks at the regularly scheduled time. Students will also attend parts of the annual Supreme Court Preview program, Friday, September 25 (around 5-7 pm) and Saturday, September 26 (times tbd). Students will also take a 2 day field trip to Washington, DC to meet judges/justices, advocates, and probably attend oral arguments. Dates for the field trip and additional information about who we will meet with will be distributed over the summer. Students earning 3 credits will write a paper of around 25 pages and three short pass-fail memos (1-2 pages). Students earning 2 credits will write three memos of around 5-6 pages. Students earning 2 credits must attend all class sessions and do related readings.

Tax Policy Research Seminar2 Law 609

Students will research and present for group discussion current issues in U.S. tax policy. The final grade will be based on a 15-20 page paper (2 credits) or 3 credits for a longer paper which will meet the major writing requirement.

Tax Research Methods Law 715

This course is an introduction to tax research. The course will consist of explanation of sources of primary tax authorities, including code, legislation, regulations, rulings and cases, as well as secondary treatises and commentary, and how to navigate them effectively (including electronically). Research and short answer questions primarily set forth in the text involving substantive issues and locating authorities will be required assignments. A final take-home examination will consist of drafting of a memorandum to the file based on a factual hypothetical. Prerequisite: Law 311 Federal Income Tax (may be taken concurrently).

Taxation of Mergers & Acquisitions Seminar Law 644

This advanced course focuses primarily on corporate acquisitions. It will explore different ways to structure both nontaxable and taxable combinations of business entities, the tax goals and consequences of such transactions, and the role of the tax lawyer in representing a party to a business combination. This course will build on concepts introduced in the Law 438 Corporate Tax course, completion of which is a prerequisite unless waived by Professor Richardson. Waivers generally will be granted for students whose class rank is in the top 20% or whose grade in Federal Income Taxation (Law 311) is A- or higher. This course may be taken for either two or three credits; in order to earn three credits, students are required to write a paper of approximately ten pages, in addition to completing the exam.

Technology-Augmented Trial Advocacy Law 738

Technology-Augmented Trial Advocacy combines instruction in traditional trial practice, including basic deposition practice, with contemporary technology-augmented trial practice techniques, including use of a high-tech record at trial, technologically presented evidence, and remote witness testimony. The course will address trial strategy, jury selection, opening statements, presentation of evidence, including the examination of witnesses, closing arguments, and preparation of jury instructions and will encompass both civil and criminal cases. The course requires satisfactory completion of a jury trial using role-played witnesses. This is a 4-credit pass/fail course open to second-year and third-year students. Students may not enroll in or have Basic Advanced Litigation. Students may take or have taken National Trial Team Trial Ad. Prerequisite: satisfactory completion of Evidence or Applied Evidence.

Terrorism Seminar1 Law 543

Terrorism is a special form of political violence that has been used throughout history by both states and sub-state organizations to sustain a wide variety of causes. This course examines the challenges faced in protecting against and responding to acts of terrorism, including the conflicts of law, jurisdictional limits imposed by international and domestic legal regimes, and the need to balance increased security measures against protection of civil liberties. The course satisfies the Writing Requirement.

The Constitution & Business Liberty Law 300

This course will examine the various constitutional and quasi-constitutional doctrines that define the scope of commercial freedom in the United States. To this end, the course will examine the scope of constitutional protections for corporate political speech, commercial speech, private contracts and private property. The course will also examine the division of regulatory authority between the state and national governments, including the role of the so-called "Dormant Commerce Clause" and the right to travel. Finally, the course will consider whether and how certain quasi-constitutional statutes, including the Sherman Act and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act protect commercial freedom. The course will not require a textbook. There will be a final examination at the end of the semester.

The Death Penalty Seminar2 Law 630

This course will explore the history, constitutional rules and implementation of the death penalty in the United States. We will examine the special requirements for a capital trial including the selection of a 'death qualified' jury, use of aggravating and mitigating evidence in the punishment phase of the trial, and the right to effective counsel. Arguments by proponents and opponents of the death penalty will be discussed. Students will write a research paper on an instructor approved topic and present the results of their research in class.

The Federal Courts Law 415

An examination of the federal judicial system encompassing such topics as allocation of federal judicial power; original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court; the Eleventh Amendment; suits in federal court against state officials; restrictions on federal adjudication of state-created rights; federal question jurisdiction and federal common law.

The First Amendment - Free Speech & Press Law 400

This 3-credit course will examine in depth the First Amendment's guarantees of freedom of speech, press, and association. We will discuss First Amendment theories or justifications; the regulation of various categories of expression including incitement to unlawful action, threats, libel, child pornography, commercial speech, and obscenity; and content-neutral restrictions including limits on symbolic content (e.g., draft card burning, flag desecration, and nude dancing). The course will cover application of the First Amendment to government while acting in special capacities, including employer, educator, landlord, subsidizer/speaker, regulator of the airwaves, regulator of the Bar, controller of the military, prison warden, and regulator of immigration. The course will also cover certain ancillary First Amendment rights, including the right not to speak and the right of expressive association. Finally, we will examine the 'press' and newsgathering rights.

The Law Governing Harassment at Work and School Law 708

This one-credit course introduces students to laws prohibiting harassment in employment and education. The course also provides practical experience in the work of the EO compliance officer, a role increasingly filled by law school graduates. In addition to reading and classroom discussion, course work entails practical exercises, such as drafting, creating and presenting training programs and role-playing exercises. This is a pass/fail course.

The Resurgent Role of Legal History in Modern Judicial1 Law 651

Decision-making Seminar: Taught by Judge D. Arthur Kelsey of the Virginia Court of Appeals, this course examines the increasingly prominent role legal history plays in modern judicial decision-making and the jurisprudential factors that explain it. The class will survey recent U.S. Supreme Court and state cases decided primarily with historical reasoning, examine the cited historical sources directly, and consider academic praise and criticism of the judicial invocation of legal history all toward the goal of equipping students to confidently incorporate historical argument into their legal thinking as well as their future advocacy.

The State Secrets Privilege Law 392

Analysis of Supreme Court case in United States v. Reynolds (1953) that first recognized the State Secrets Privilege and its application to current SSP cases involving such issues as NSA Surveillance and the 'Extraordinary Rendition' of individuals by the United States to other countries for interrogation and likely torture (the cases of Khaled el-Masri and Maher Arar). What standards of review should be followed by federal courts? Deference, utmost deference, or a more independent judicial check? What 'balancing tests' should be applied by courts to both protect state secrets and protect the rights of litigants to challenge government practices? What might Congress enact to clarify this area?

The Supreme Court Law 356

This course will examine (1) selected decisions of the last U.S. Supreme Court term and issues presently before the Court and (2) the relationship between the U.S. Supreme Court and other parts of government, including the ways that elected officials often play a dominate role in shaping the Constitution's meaning. The course will emphasize class discussion and will meet every week. Students are also required to attend the Friday, September 27th Supreme Court Preview program (evening). One or two class meetings may be held on Thursdays at 3:30 (including a tentatively scheduled September 26th class with former Federal Court of Appeals judge and Stanford Law professor Michael McConnell). It is anticipated that there will be two other guest lecturers over the course of the semester. Grading of students will be in this course in two ways. There will be a 2 hour, self-scheduled open book exam in which students will write an essay about topic #2 listed above; students will also write two (2) graded memos (1200-1400 words) over the course of the semester.

The Wire - Crime, Law & Policy Law 369

This course explores legal and policy issues raised by David Simon's critically acclaimed HBO series The Wire. Among the topics explored will be wiretapping, confessions, search and seizure, sentencing law, police manipulation of crime statistics, race and the criminal justice system. In addition to class participation, grades will be determined based on a final paper due the last day of class. The class materials will include all five seasons of The Wire as well as cases, law review articles, public policy papers, book excerpts, and statutes. Before enrolling in this course, please be advised that (1) The Wire contains a considerable amount of violence and offensive language, and (2) this course will require you to invest a significant amount of time before the semester begins because all students must watch the first two seasons of the show in advance of the first class.

Title Insurance Law 314

This course considers the topic of land title and the potential encumbrances and defects that might exist. It will focus on title insurance as an evolved form of risk management with special attention given to the principal title insurance policies currently in use. In particular, the course will discuss the insuring provisions of both the lender's and the owner's policy, exclusions from coverage, claims and claim processing, significant other policy provisions and risk analysis. This class is highly interactive with an emphasis on practical solutions.

Torts Law 107

A survey of the legal system's responses to problems arising from personal injury and property damage. Concentration on the legal doctrines relating to liability for harm resulting from fault and to strict liability. Analysis of the goals and techniques of accident prevention and compensation for loss.

Trademark Law Law 442

An overview of federal trademark law and policy, including the acquisition and loss of trademark rights, the trademark registration process, issues relating to scope and enforcement of rights across geographic boundaries, trademark infringement and dilution, lawful unauthorized use, and remedies. Related issues such as federal false advertising law and state right of publicity law may be considered.

Trial Advocacy - Basic Advanced Litigation Law 720

An advanced litigation course intended for those students who have a substantial interest in litigation. The course is designed to develop the student's skills as a trial lawyer for both civil and criminal cases. Trial Advocacy will deal with trial strategy, jury selection, opening statements, presentation of evidence, including the examination of witnesses, closing arguments, and preparation of jury instructions. Evidence presentation and related technologies will be fully integrated into all aspects of the course. A trial will be required. Students who take Trial Advocacy-Basic Advanced Litigation may not take any other Trial Advocacy section (Tech Trial Ad or National Trial Team Trial Ad) for credit. Pre-requisite: satisfactory completion of Evidence. or co-registration in Evidence. This course is open to any upper-level student who satisfies the pre-req or co-req.

Trial Strategy and Persuasion Law 731

This is an advanced trial advocacy course designed to hone learned skills of trying cases. Through lecture and simulation, the course will provide techniques for both prosecution and defense in civil and criminal cases. Students will role play during most class periods. Prerequisite: Evidence and Trial Advocacy. Course is strongly recommended for Trial Team members. Grading is pass/fail.

Trusts & Estates Law 305

A study of the law governing inter vivos and death time gratuitous transfers of property. Aspects covered include transfers under intestate succession statutes; the law of wills, including the formalities of execution, testamentary capacity, undue influence and fraud, interpretation, and revocation; non-probate transfers; the law of trusts, including methods of creation and termination, rights and interests of the beneficiary, and special problems relating to resulting, constructive and charitable trusts; and fiduciary administration, including an introduction to probate proceedings and problems of trust administration.

Tying the Knot-Relationship Recognition for Same-Sex Couples Law 676

In 1972, the Supreme Court of the United States dismissed "for want of a federal question" an appeal of a Minnesota Supreme Court ruling that a state law limiting marriage to couples of the opposite sex did not violate the U.S. Constitution. Forty-two years later, seventeen states and the District of Columbia recognize marriages of same-sex couples, the Supreme Court has ruled that the federal government must recognize such marriages and several federal district courts have ruled that state prohibitions of such marriages violate the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. This one-credit seminar will review the history of relationship recognition for LGBT couples from the beginning of the modern LGBT rights movement through current litigation in the federal courts. The course will examine early attempts at legal recognition of same-sex couples and couples that include a transgender woman or man; the development of statewide domestic partnership registries; state law litigation for marriage rights; passage of the defense of marriage act (DOMA) and its effect on LGBT couples and their families; early victories in state courts establishing civil unions and marriage rights for same-sex couples; legislative responses to such recognition; and the push for marriage recognition through ballot initiatives, legislation, and state and federal litigation. The seminar will be presented through traditional case and statutory materials integrated with an analysis of historical context and the development of constitutional protections of LGBT individuals and the right to marry. Grades will be based on class participation and a final 10-12 page paper due two weeks after the final class.

U.S. Attorney Externship Law 756

Students earn academic credit by externing for the civil or criminal divisions of U.S. Attorney offices. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

Veterans Benefit Clinic II (VBC II)2 Law 783

This clinic offers students an advanced advocacy experience in veterans law, likely to include such activities as working on veterans' cases on appeal to the U. S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims; servicemembers' cases at the armed services Medical Evaluation/Physical Evaluation Boards; policy issues affecting veterans for which students will propose legislation at the state or federal level. Tasks will be determined based on clients' needs. Opportunities for mentoring VBC I students through weekly office hours will also be provided, as well as writing opportunities to promote national discourse in the area of veterans law. Students may opt to meet the writing requirement through this course if they inform their professors within the first week of class. Class meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 11:30 am-12:45 pm and the clinic will be co-taught by Professor Patty Roberts and Professor Aniela Szymanski. VBC II is a graded course, and VBC I is a pre-requisite.

Veterans' Benefits Clinic I Law 780

In this multi-disciplinary clinic, students will learn veterans disability law and procedure and will aid military veterans in the filing, adjudication, and appeal of their disability claims with the Veterans Administration. Law students will work within the curriculum to create and deliver outreach programs to veterans covering the legal aspects of a disability claim. Students will also advocate and negotiate for veteran clients orally and in writing to administrative boards and the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims to appeal adverse decisions of the veterans' claims. Students will work in conjunction with the psychology students at VCU to refer clients for assessment, counseling, and therapy as needed, and may work with graduate students from additional disciplines in responding to veteran client needs. Weekly class sessions and supervisory case meetings will be held, with occasional sessions at VCU. Students will also be required to staff weekly office hours to assist with veteran inquires. VBCI is three credits and is graded. Students interested in VBC2 must take VBCI. Only pre-approved absences are excusable.

Virginia Attorney General Externship Law 752

Students earn academic credit by externing for divisions/sections of the Virginia Attorney General's office. See the Externship Manual and each semester's syllabus for details. 1-3 credits summer/fall/spring. Pass/Fail

Virginia Civil Procedure Law 419

Covers procedural law for both law and equitable claims, including applicable statutes, rules of court and cases interpreting the statutes and rules. Appellate procedure for both the Court of Appeals of Virginia and the Supreme Court of Virginia are covered. Prerequisite: Third year status

Virginia Coastal Policy Practicum II Law 791

Advanced experiential practicum in coastal policy and environmental law, allowing up to three students selected by Professor who have successfully completed the Virginia Coastal Policy Practicum I to further expand their understanding and skills in the coastal and environmental policy arena. Students will have increased autonomy in the interaction with state and local governmental officials and in project development and execution; will provide leadership in the implementation of Virginia Coastal Policy Center activities; will mentor one or more teams of Practicum I students; will supervise project work to ensure effective collaboration among students and ensure deadlines are met; will review, edit and critique white paper development and finalization; will work with experts in the fields of law, science, planning, etc., in execution of projects and in preparation for annual conference. Flexible schedule and desire to lead a plus. Ten hours average weekly commitment required. Interested students should email a brief statement (no more than three paragraphs) on their interest to the Professor. Pass/fail, 3 credit course. Weekly meetings TBD.

Virginia Coastal Policy Practicum Law 741

The Virginia Coastal Policy Practicum is an experiential class offered by the Virginia Coastal Policy Center (see www.law.wm.edu/vacoastal). The practicum is clinical and interdisciplinary in nature and it focuses on a broad range of policy challenges facing coastal communities and resources. Examples of student work in the Practicum include participation in strategy development and implementation; legal and policy research; data collection and analysis; interviewing; legislative drafting; white paper preparation and presentation. Potential substantive topics addressed by the Practicum range from sea level rise implications, legal limits on local government authority, Chesapeake Bay restoration efforts, and environmental justice. On occasion, outside speakers may contribute legal and policy expertise to the Practicum. The Practicum is a graded course and students will be evaluated on the basis of the quality and quantity of their written work products (e.g., white papers, memos, journal entries, and correspondence), their ability to meet deadlines and their demonstrated professionalism and initiative. The course is open to 2L and 3L students.

Virginia Criminal Procedure Law 397

A review of the Virginia statutes and Rules of Court governing criminal procedure in Virginia's courts. Covers Va. Code Title 19.2, Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia affecting criminal and traffic litigation and a large number of cases interpreting the statutes and rules. The course also lightly covers appellate procedure for criminal cases. Some of the topics covered are jurisdiction, venue, pre-trial motions and procedures, competency and insanity issues, trial, sentencing and appeals. It is not a constitutional law course but there is discussion of how state statutes and rules mesh with constitutional requirements. Course is structured for students who wish to do criminal litigation, either as defense counsel or prosecutor in Virginia. This course is open to 2L and 3L students. Either having completed or being enrolled in Criminal Procedure I & II is helpful, but not required.

Washington, DC, Semester Externship Law 772

Third-year students earn academic credit by externing in the Washington, DC, area for a federal, state, or local government agency, court, prosecutor's or public defender's office, legal aid office, or 501(c)(3) organization. Enrollment is limited and is by prior approval of Associate Dean Robert Kaplan. Students must have a minimum GPA of 3.0 to participate. 12 credits fall only. Pass/Fail . . . .

White Collar Crime Law 440

Topics covered include RICO, mail fraud, tax fraud, bank secrecy and currency reporting offenses, false statements, forfeiture statutes, and selected procedural problems in the prosecution of white collar crimes, including privilege against self-incrimination issues, attorney-client privilege issues, and double jeopardy issues arising from duplicative state and federal prosecution.

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal1 Law 761

Preparation and editing of student notes for the William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal; and editing of professional articles. Limited to the board and staff members of the Journal.

William & Mary Business Law Review1 Law 764

Preparation and editing of student notes for the William & Mary Business Law Review; editing of professional articles. Limited to the board and staff members of the Review.

William & Mary Environmental Law & Policy Review1 Law 762

Preparation and editing of student notes for the William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review; editing of professional articles. Limited to the board and staff members of the Review.

William & Mary Journal of Women & the Law1 Law 763

Preparation and editing of student notes for the William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law; editing of professional articles. Limited to the board and staff members of the Journal.

William & Mary Law Review1 Law 760

Preparation and editing of comments and notes for the William and Mary Law Review; editing of professional articles. Limited to the board and staff members of the Review.

World Resources Law1 Law 511

The seminar focuses on bilateral, regional and international agreements and principles governing ocean pollution, air pollution, hazardous and nuclear waste, deforestation, and other environmental problems with a global impact. The seminar will also address population control and food shortages under international law, especially in developing countries, and how these problems relate to international peace and security. The basic courses, Law 409 Public International Law and Law 424 Environmental Law, are not prerequisities, but are recommended. The seminar grade will be based on class participation and a paper that satisfies the Writing Requirement.

Youth Law Law 488

This course covers child abuse and neglect, adoption, legal representation of children, emancipation, status offenses, delinquency, trial of minors as adults, and the constitutional rights of youths. There is no exam for this course. Students will write a research paper on a topic of their choice.

1This course satisfies the writing requirement.
2Students can choose to have this course satisfy the writing requirement or not.

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